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曹文軒新作《草鞋灣》靈感來自毛姆

發布時間:2019-06-10 作者:本報記者 卻詠梅 來源:中國教育報

“一名私家偵探出門的時候總是帶著他的小兒子”,毛姆小說中的這句話觸動了北京大學教授、兒童文學作家曹文軒,并在他心中不斷生長、發育,最后呱呱墜地一部新小說《草鞋灣》。在近日由中國出版集團、人民文學出版社、天天出版社舉辦的“曹文軒新小說”系列研討會暨《草鞋灣》新書發布會上,曹文軒自稱是一個擅長寫故事的人,所以具有寫作偵探小說的能力,而對文學觀、美學觀,以及一切思考心血都凝聚在這次寫作嘗試中,讓它不同于尋常的偵探小說,最終成為他的作品。

自2016年曹文軒獲得國際安徒生獎之后,已有《穿堂風》《蝙蝠香》《螢王》《草鞋灣》四部“新小說”問世。中國出版集團副總裁、評論家潘凱雄認為,這四部作品反映了曹文軒的自律追求和自我突破,凝聚著他對兒童成長關注的新視角和新思考。曹文軒說,他從2015年創作《火印》開始,便把目光漸漸從油麻地轉移,開始了個人寫作的“出油麻地記”。從《穿堂風》開始,到《蝙蝠香》《螢王》,再到最新的《草鞋灣》,都是他走出油麻地的嘗試。“這個世界的可能性和無窮的宇宙一樣,是無邊無際的,可以被無止境地重組與創造,這是作家寫作的理由與動力,創造的快意就在這種對可能性的嘗試之中。”

曹文軒新小說的“新”和“變”體現在哪些地方?研討會上,與會嘉賓從文學成就、藝術追求以及審美趣味、開拓創新等角度進行了充分而深入的研討。全國政協常委、民進中央副主席朱永新說,該系列呵護孩子成長,肯定人性的力量,但彼此間呈現出不一樣的風格,比如《穿堂風》挖掘孩子心中的善,具有很強的教育意義,《螢王》則有童話氣質和色彩,《草鞋灣》又是一個偵探故事,充滿情與理的沖突。

中國作協副主席高洪波認為,《草鞋灣》是一部不同尋常的偵探小說,書名就讓人產生奇特的閱讀錯覺,反映了一個以寫作為生命的作家,在登臨藝術高峰后挑戰自我的無限可能性。著名文學評論家陳曉明表示,曹文軒對成長的表達是在不斷變化的,《草房子》《紅瓦》中刻畫少年性格的原生性與社會關系的沖突,《青銅葵花》《火印》中則有一種率性,而到了《草鞋灣》,他又在追求一種自然的人性,以此跟世界對話。但這些變化都是有跡可循的,成長主題一直是曹文軒作品的主導。

著名文學評論家賀紹俊認為,曹文軒在創作中有不變的美學追求,但新小說中的“變”也更加突出。在《穿堂風》《蝙蝠香》《螢王》《草鞋灣》等四部新小說中,曹文軒更加追求審美性,他在情節和故事上做減法,呈現出一種簡約之美,并使用虛寫現實的手法關照生命,更加追求意境的表達,呈現出一種意境之美。

在評論家劉颋看來,曹文軒一直在探索或者重塑兒童文學的邊界。在《草鞋灣》等作品里,曹文軒沒有割裂兒童與社會的關系,他把復雜的生活、深層次的人類情感,以及現實倫理準則等圓融地裝在一個兒童故事里,是對當今影響至深的“兒童本位”“兒童中心”思維的反思和匡正。百年中國兒童文學走了一條螺旋式上升的路徑,而《草鞋灣》就處在這樣一個節點上,啟發我們對兒童與社會的關系進行重新認識和重新建構。

《中國教育報》2019年06月10日第11版 

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