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一座兒童精神情感和愿望之塔

——讀程瑋《午夜動物園》

發布時間:2019-06-10 作者:侯穎 來源:中國教育報

一段時間以來,中國兒童文學創作耽于娛樂,書寫著物欲的歡愉,在這些嬉笑之下是思想的淺薄與精神的空虛。思想內容的深刻性、生命成長的矛盾性、藝術表現形式的多樣性,好像都不在作家創作和考慮范圍之內,這些作品很難與當下兒童的現實生活對接,更難以表現出兒童的精神風貌。成名于上個世紀80年代的兒童文學作家程瑋,卻保持了那個時代文學思想的波瀾壯闊,一如既往地挖掘兒童生命狀態的狂風巨浪,并把這種變化與人類生存環境相互對照,從自然之鏡之中反觀自我、確認自我。可以說,對兒童文學思想性的追問與探尋,已然成為程瑋創作版圖上的文化地標—— 一座兒童的精神情感和愿望之塔。

奇奇是小學二年級的一個普通男孩,如果不去上學,他的座位空了,老師和同學很長時間都想不起來這個座位原來坐的是誰。他的爸爸個子小,說話輕聲輕氣,卻是一個很有耐心的爸爸,接奇奇上下學,還陪奇奇到動物園玩。這樣一對貌似平凡的父子,內心充滿英雄氣概,在動物園對一些向獅子拋石頭的人進行了大膽的反抗并高聲說“不”,囚籠里的獅子仿佛聽到了奇奇內心對自己的同情、理解和關愛。奇奇還可以與動物園之中的其他動物對話和交流,一只黑色的烏鴉落在奇奇面前,叫著奇奇的名字,他們約好了午夜一起去動物園。

午夜動物園與白天完全不同,動物們從籠子里出來,自由自在地在星空下散步。那個白天與奇奇確認過眼神的獅子金巴,與奇奇看的動畫片《獅子王》多么的不同。金巴跟奇奇訴說自己一生的痛苦遭際,它出生在動物園,很小就跟媽媽分離,在馴獸師的皮鞭下做過馬戲團演員,現在年老體衰還有傷病,唯一的愿望就是去非洲,把自己的生命融化在非洲的烈日與黃沙之下;給小鴨子們講《丑小鴨》故事的老師白天鵝,被人類藝術塑造成“榜樣”,在藝術“皇冠”的重壓下活得真累,而它內心的愿望是當一只普通的鴨子,而不是著名的天鵝;一只動物園里的烏龜高傲地告訴奇奇,它和兔子是好朋友,不可能與兔子賽跑,誰輸誰贏都傷害感情,對比賽這類事情毫無興趣,它和兔子閑來無事的時候,約著散散步而已;烏鴉對《烏鴉喝水》這類贊頌自己聰明的故事有清醒認識,每一只烏鴉都會在自己口渴并遇到這種小口徑深瓶子時,用這種方法來喝水,不足為怪。奇奇指出烏鴉也有不那么聰明的時候,伊索寓言《狐貍和烏鴉》中,烏鴉還被狐貍騙去了嘴里的肉。烏龜告訴奇奇,這些伊索寓言都是人類借動物之名編出故事來講大道理教訓人的。不是伊索使寓言有名,而是動物使寓言有名,沒有動物就沒有寓言。

換位思考、批判性思維、同情救助弱者、人物命運具有的多種可能,是《午夜動物園》在奇奇歷險記故事之外,文學思想的深刻性之所在,這也是程瑋作為一個兒童文學作家對文化啟蒙的一種反思和懺悔意識。文化教育一方面在啟迪幼童的心智,另一方面也可能阻礙了兒童的思維。現在看來,作為中國小學語文教材之中的童話寓言《烏鴉喝水》《龜兔賽跑》《狐貍和烏鴉》《丑小鴨》等都被程瑋的《午夜動物園》懷疑和顛覆了。法國思想家盧梭在《愛彌兒——論教育》之中,也曾列舉《狐貍和烏鴉》的寓言,來質疑用動物教訓人的不合理、不合法、不合情,寓言不應該屬于心靈和情感藝術的家園,與兒童的天性相抵牾,應該驅逐出藝術的殿堂。《午夜動物園》之中,最具有顛覆性和反抗性的是對《愚公移山》的懷疑,程瑋幽默含笑地借烏龜的口氣寫道:“從地球存在的那一天起,那兩座山就已經在那里了。那個愚公偏偏把家建到山的后面,然后說那兩座山擋住了他家的出路,要把那兩座山搬走,他一點兒也不尊重那兩座山的權利。他是不是太蠻橫、太不講道理了呢?”“這個寓言的結尾應該是,神仙幫愚公把家搬走了。這樣做叫尊重自然。”人要順應自然,要有先來后到。這些質疑的聲音如此鏗鏘有力,無疑是對小學語文教育的一記側擊。

中國小學語文教育有教學大綱、教學目標、教學過程、教學方法、教學模式、考試評價、標準答案等,小學語文教師如同做機器零部件一樣對孩子的思維進行打磨和訓練,面對兒童文學這種反叛的聲音,一定會不知所措。囚籠一旦被打開,教育會往何處去?《午夜動物園》在不知不覺中,“攪動了中國語文教育的一池清水”,一個有良知的語文教師怎么能做到“我認出風暴”,而“內心平靜如大海”呢?毫無疑問,這部文學作品會給家長、教師等成人一次精神的沖浪。

《午夜動物園》編織了三條情節線索,現實之中的小男孩奇奇平淡不經、幻想世界的動物狂歡有趣、文化符號世界的寓言清規有律,三條線索交叉互滲,立體多維,這也是兒童現實生存狀態的真實寫照。人們不是先認識有生命的獅子之后,再認識動畫片之中的“獅子”,而是先在動畫片和書本之中認識了“獅子”,再去與動物園之中的獅子進行比對。即使是有生命的獅子,動物園里的獅子也不是自然界中的獅子,而是活的“死獅子”。被豢養在動物園里的活“死獅子”,是被人類異化了的獅子,還有其他動物的命運亦如此。

奇奇完成了一系列歷險之后,故事的結尾光芒萬丈,在烏鴉的幫助下,小男孩奇奇實現了人生一次英雄的壯舉,他按動了塔中綠色的按鈕——地球回到了古老的過去:籠子中所有的動物都獲得了自由。在午夜的鐘聲當當當敲響的節奏之中,每一個動物在以自己的方式實現著夢想。獅子金巴將沐浴金光回到夢想的非洲草原故鄉,其他的動物也奔向了光明之所。但是,動物園里的動物一旦獲得了自由,他們能生存下去嗎?命運被無形的手拋到了一個未知的世界。英國動物學家、生物人類學家德斯蒙德·莫里斯的著作《人類動物園》,把現代都市人的生存狀態隱喻為被困在囚籠之中的動物,即使囚籠打開,如何生存下去呢?《午夜動物園》的動物故事,可以說是人類命運的一個寓言。

兒童文學作家程瑋“以己之矛攻己之盾”,在顛覆一個又一個寓言故事之后,構筑了一個更宏大的寓言。從動物身上,折射出人類的命運,并發出了天問:人類向何處去?未來安好嗎?這就使得她在自己兒童文學創作思想深刻性的隧道上又深挖一鍬,取得了超出兒童文學境界的藝術效果,兒童文學作為小兒科,從不應該淺薄,在有追求的藝術家眼里:要關乎地球上一切生命的狀態。那關切的目光,宛若黑夜里的一束光,照得很遠很遠。(作者系東北師范大學文學院教授)

《中國教育報》2019年06月10日第11版 

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