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活出大學教師的“長寬高”

發布時間:2019-06-10 作者:楊燦明 來源:中國教育報

作為高校教師,要想對人類有貢獻,就要立德、立言。33年的教師生涯,我最大的體會是,高校教師的人生要成為一個立體,而立體是由長度、高度、寬度組成。

生命的高度在學術

學術水平的高度體現了高校教師生命的高度。學術水平高度與人的思想境界密切相關。一個人視野和思維空間,受思想境界的局限。胸懷有多大,學問才能做多大;境界有多高,學問才能做多高。回顧人類發展史,幾乎所有偉大的思想家和學術大師都不是從自身利益出發,而是有一種心憂天下的家國情懷。比如馬克思,心里裝的就是全人類,馬克思主義的核心之一就是實現人的自由全面發展,所以他能夠在流亡的情況下完成大量的鴻篇巨制。馬克思信仰堅定,心系勞苦大眾,其格局和境界都決定了他的學術高度無與倫比。

既然大學老師生命的高度在學術,就一定要實現“三求”。第一要“求真”,即追求真理。第二要“求深”。學術研究像打一口井,達到一定深度的時候,很多靈感就會源源不斷地冒出來。第三要“求新”。在學習別人的觀點的同時,不重復別人的觀點,并且創造自己的觀點,生產新知識的才是知識分子。

何謂立德、立言?立德是樹立品行,立言是做學問。洪堡大學首次提出大學應該有學術研究的功能,從而開啟了現代大學的發展之路,所以高校教師既要重教學,也要重科研。沒有科研,教到半路就會黔驢技窮,只有科研才會源源不斷地產生新思想。生命的高度在學術,學術的核心在創新。我們要想活得有高度,一定要刻苦鉆研,勤于思考,要坐得住冷板凳,耐得住寂寞。

生命的長度在學生

人有兩種生命,一種是自然生命,一種是社會生命,對應著人的自然屬性和社會屬性。人的自然生命是有限的。人作為社會人,社會生命則取決于他的社會影響。對于高校教師而言,學術生命就是社會生命,學術生命的長度不可能靠傳宗接代,而要靠弟子再傳弟子,思想就可以薪火相傳。

學生要想讓老師在學術上健康長壽,最好是在學術上超過老師。學生水平越高,老師的學術生命就會越長,否則就是邊際效益遞減,一代不如一代。學生超過老師,人們都認為是名師出高徒。學生影響力的時間跨度和強度就決定著老師學術生命的長度與質量。大學老師有這個天然優勢,通過培養學生,名垂青史、千古揚名,這是人生一大幸事。

如果你對自己負責,珍惜教師這個崗位的話,一定要下大力氣來教學生立德。德行過關,知識越多越好。德行過不了關,很可能是知識越多越反動,做起壞事來越厲害。做好“立德”之后,就要“樹人”,即:傳道、授業、解惑。

高度有利于增加長度。學術水平高的人,對學生的吸引力也可能更大,人格魅力也更大,對學生的影響力也可能更大。既然選擇了高校教師職業,首先面對的是學生,做學問也還是為了學生。經常跟學生摸爬滾打在一起,也容易產生一些新的靈感,迸出一些新的火花,促進教師自己的成長,這就叫教學相長。

生命的寬度在學科

我們有了高度,有了長度,還要有寬度,才能成為一個立體。對于高校教師而言,寬度代表廣博。古今中外的學術大師,研究領域都是橫跨幾個一級學科,而且卓有成就。

老子的代表作《道德經》,全篇才5000來字,這篇給華夏文明作出重大貢獻的經典文獻,包含哲學、倫理學等五大學科門類;孔子有“六藝”,內容涵蓋六個學科,所以被稱為偉大的教育家、思想家;亞里士多德有“七藝”,比孔子還多一藝。亞當·斯密在格拉斯哥大學也是講授了四門課程,即“宗教”“道德情操”“法律”“政治經濟學”,橫跨了四大學科門類。

生命要有寬度,而寬度在學科。自工業革命以來社會分工越來越細,連帶著高等教育在學科專業的劃分上也越來越細。大家的關注點越來越聚焦,從某個角度來說是好事,但是任何事物都是辯證的,我們得到了一些,也失去了一些,甚至失去了更多。術業有專攻,在某個領域成為專家是沒錯的,比如遺產稅專家、個人所得稅專家。然而即便研究遺產稅,如果不橫跨幾個一級學科,不吸收各種相關知識,也無法研究好遺產稅。世間的萬事萬物本來是有聯系的,若我們把學科專業分得越來越細,就是在不斷割裂這種聯系,就是在背離事物之間相互聯系的真相,離真相就越來越遠。

創新需要靈感,思想來自智慧的火花。偉大的思想最開始都是星星之火,火花的產生來源于頭腦中多種交叉知識的碰撞。軟知識,也就是默會知識,是創新的最重要的一種知識,也即“只可意會,不可言傳”。全世界的蘋果都是從樹上往下掉,掉下來打到的人一定很多,為什么只有牛頓提出了萬有引力定律?其中起主要作用的就是軟知識。軟知識的形成,需要非常復雜的知識結構和廣博的見識。我們提倡人文社會科學教師學點自然科學知識,自然科學界教師要打好人文社會科學基礎,就是這個道理。愛因斯坦文理兼通,哲學思維發達;錢偉長以物理只考5分的基礎轉學物理,成為一代大家,主要歸功于他的人文功底,也就是軟知識和交叉知識起了作用。學術的世界,你可能只在一棵樹、兩棵樹或三棵樹上深耕,但只有擁有一片森林,你那幾棵樹才能茁壯成長。

(作者系中南財經政法大學校長)

《中國教育報》2019年06月10日第5版 

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