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“植物界大熊貓”回歸自然

——浙大繁育世界首例胚培養百山祖冷杉幼苗

發布時間:2019-06-10 作者:通訊員 柯溢能 來源:中國教育報

日前,浙江大學科學家團隊經過近一年的技術攻關,在之前成功繁育世界首例胚培養百山祖冷杉幼苗的基礎上,又成功實現了三株人工繁育百山祖冷杉幼苗回歸原生地——位于浙江省慶元縣的百山祖國家級自然保護區。此舉為百山祖冷杉擺脫極度瀕危狀態創造了條件,標志著百山祖冷杉人工繁育的研究工作將進入新的階段。

百山祖冷杉,是我國特有的古老孑遺植物,素有“植物界大熊貓”之稱。目前全球僅有三棵成年野生植株,分布于浙江省慶元縣海拔1700多米的山林中。百山祖冷杉不僅生物學特征獨特,而且在研究植物區系和氣候變化的影響等方面具有極高的學術價值,為世界矚目的瀕危野生植物資源。

為實現百山祖冷杉無菌試管苗的野外回歸,擴大原生地種群數量,浙江大學農業與生物技術學院陳利萍教授實驗室開展了大量的研究工作。

這其中最為重要的突破就是無菌試管苗人工基質栽培的研究。在自然生長條件下,百山祖冷杉的水分和營養物質依賴根系與真菌共生形成的菌根。為了使無菌試管苗能夠順利地回歸大自然,該實驗室通過多次試驗,成功地建立幼苗基質栽培體系。浙江大學農業與生物技術學院碩士研究生王挺進介紹,幼苗僅經過半年的基質栽培,一級分枝數可達3至4個,生長速度可達自然狀態下的2至3倍。

在此之前,陳利萍實驗室成功培育出世界上首例胚胎培養的百山祖冷杉。她表示,無菌試管幼苗的獲得與人工基質栽培的成功,為百山祖冷杉的搶救與保育開辟了一條新途徑,也為冷杉等珍稀瀕危裸子植物種質資源離體保存、遺傳資源的改良及開發利用奠定了基礎。

在自然狀態下,冷杉等松科植物主要通過種子繁育后代,但百山祖冷杉存在種子萌發困難和幼苗成活率極低等問題。因此,為解決百山祖冷杉自然繁育困難等問題,浙江省野生動植物保護管理總站于2016年制定了《浙江省珍稀瀕危野生動植物搶救保護行動方案(2017—2020)》,并將百山祖冷杉列為重點保護搶救物種。

浙大團隊開展了利用胚拯救技術繁育百山祖冷杉的研究,成功獲得了由未成熟胚發育的無菌試管苗,有效地減少了因種子發育障礙而死亡的個體數量。陳利萍介紹說,胚拯救技術可以對遇到發育困難的百山祖冷杉“胚胎”進行“剖腹產”,提前將“胚胎”從母體中分離,放置在人工“保育箱”中進行培育,從而獲得新的個體。

百山祖國家級自然保護區管理處總工程師陳德良說:“正是基于陳教授課題組的不斷技術攻關,才有了這次幼苗的回歸,相信百山祖冷杉‘開枝散葉’未來可期。”管理處吳友貴說:“針對野外回歸,我們與浙大團隊制訂了專門的栽培管理計劃和生長監測方案,并通過對幼苗的基礎生長數據進行測定檢測野外適應情況。”(通訊員 柯溢能)

《中國教育報》2019年06月10日第7版 

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