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用生命教育影響生命

發布時間:2019-06-09 作者:季燕 來源:中國教育報

兒童只有體驗了生命的快樂、感受了生活的美好、經歷了精神的富足,才會珍惜生命、成就生命,才會快樂生活、幸福生活!

兒童時期是人生發展的關鍵時期,也是終身教育的奠基階段,生命教育在這一階段,有其實施的必要性和緊迫性。“用生命去影響生命”,讓兒童在生命的源頭有豐富的生命體驗,感受生命的喜樂,把對生命的熱愛、尊重、理解融入心底,這需要學前教育工作者在教育的場域中,抓住下面三個核心問題,幫助兒童感性地理解生命、珍惜生命,將是兒童一生的財富。

用心解答生命疑問 樹立正確生死觀

“我是從哪里來的”——這個問題一直是兒童極其關心的問題,但是對于我們這樣一個含蓄、內斂的民族,往往采取回避的態度不愿啟齒;或者覺得這么深奧的問題講了兒童也不懂,所以“撿來的”“充電話費送的”等回答比比皆是。

事實上,在這個圖像時代,兒童已經從各種傳媒途徑中接觸到遺傳、生殖等方面的知識。許多圖畫書會用生動、優美的畫面配合簡潔、有趣的語言解決“我是從哪里來的”的疑問。英國作家艾倫所著繪本《小威向前沖》就是用兒童的思維回應兒童對生命起源的好奇,圖文并茂講述一個小精子變成小寶寶的過程,但又不僅僅是一堂生理衛生課,兒童在閱讀中明白了生命的孕育是一段愛意濃濃的旅程、是個永不放棄的過程,從而感受生命之美、生命之道。

“生”的另一面是“死”。“人為什么會死?我會死嗎?我什么時候會死?”——這些問題是兒童對“死亡”的最初探索。花草枯萎、小動物沒有養活、身邊的親人離世,還有各種突發、意外、天災人禍等會讓生命突然消逝,死亡是生命不可避免的事。長久以來,社會文化對死亡的忌諱和成人的困頓,使成人不知如何和兒童談及死亡,擔心他們難以接受生命消逝的消極感受與情感沖擊,常以忽視、隱瞞、欺騙或敷衍方式處理,使兒童產生錯誤或片面的認知,以至于對死亡有高度的好奇、恐懼、焦慮。

閱讀是很好的載體,借助優秀讀物和兒童一起領悟生命的變化和交替,了解死亡是什么,不存在是什么,什么是不朽。圖畫書《爺爺有沒有穿西裝》在文字和畫面的緩緩敘述中讓讀者感受小主人公失去爺爺后的情感變化,領會時間可以撫平悲傷的道理,坦然面對死亡、接受悲傷;《一片葉子落下來》以一片葉子經歷四季的故事,講述生與死之間微妙的平衡……通過這樣的滲透,兒童會慢慢懂得生命的來之不易,知道生命對每個人只有一次、一旦失去不可能再次擁有,所以要珍愛自己和他人生命,并且在自發層面上感悟人的生命不僅僅是為了自己的存在,更重要的是讓自己和他人生活得更美好。

回歸童年體驗 享受生命過程

兒童時期是生命的開始階段,童言、童真、童趣、童心……這一切都源于生命的本色。至真至純,是每個個體也是人類群體最寶貴的財富。著名的意大利兒童教育家蒙臺梭利就曾指出:“不經歷童年,不經過兒童的創造,就不存在成人。”人類進化至今,仍然離不開童年的慰藉,身心疲憊的成人一次次回望童年的無憂無慮、重溫生命起點的真善美。

在所有生物中,人類的童年期是最長的,他的整個生命周期的30%都用于童年生長。所以,童年是生命發展的特定時期,是一個有序生長的過程,我們要承認并尊重童年生活的獨特價值,而不能僅僅將它看作是成人的預備。如果我們總是急切地驅趕兒童走向成熟,幼兒園教育小學化,中小學教育應試化,“不要輸在起跑線上”最終就會演變成“傷在起跑線上”,“金色童年”被“恐慌童年”替代。生命的早期遠離了夢想和詩意,沒有了天真和無邪,就會出現現在一些兒童感嘆“活著沒意思”的病態現象。

所以,兒童生命教育的核心應該是尊重和理解童年生活,保持它原有的生態平衡,養護它原有的自然生命狀態;關懷兒童的心靈世界,培育兒童的健康人格和生命情感,促進兒童身心和諧發展。蘇霍姆林斯基對此做了詮釋:“孩子只有生活在游戲、童話、音樂、幻想、創作的世界中時,他的精神生活才有充分價值。沒有了這些,他就是一朵枯萎的花朵。”教育的目的不僅僅在于促進兒童的發展,而且在于使兒童歡樂幸福。兒童只有體驗了生命的快樂、感受了生活的美好、經歷了精神的富足,才會珍惜生命、成就生命,才會快樂生活、幸福生活!

順應泛靈論 踐行生命至上

著名兒童心理學家皮亞杰根據實驗與觀察認為,前運算階段的兒童(2—7歲)處于主觀世界與物質宇宙尚未分化的混沌狀態,缺乏必要的知識,對事物之間的物理因果關系和邏輯因果關系知之甚少,所以思維常是“泛靈論”的,主要表現為不能很好地把自己與外部世界區別開來,認為外界的一切事物都是有生命的,有感知、有情感、有意向。

基于這一點,成人和兒童的交往中常常用“泛靈論”的言行相互影響。例如,公益廣告“小草也會疼的”,就是以小花小草的口吻告訴兒童不要踐踏草坪、亂摘花草,讓兒童擁有一顆同理心對待自然界的生物,這比說教的效果好多了;再如,兒童對于動物有天生的喜愛之情,他們會蹲半天研究、守護一只小螞蟻,不讓大人踩死它,“踩死了媽媽就找不到它,會很傷心的!”這是純潔童心對生命的珍視;有些兒童喜歡亂扔玩具,成人如果擬物說:“哎呦,誰摔得我好疼呀,不和你做朋友了!”兒童馬上會撿起玩具,抱在懷里向玩具道歉,以后就不會發生這樣的事情,兒童便會知道應該善待物品,它們和自己一樣也有感情。

所以,“泛靈論”就是兒童對生命最本真的認識與踐行,學會尊重、欣賞、敬畏大自然中的一切生物,學會人物共存,珍惜自己的生命,同時也熱愛、保護他人和其他生物的生命。

生命是教育的起點也是教育的歸宿,盧梭就曾指出,“我們的教育是同我們的生命一起開始的”。關注生命是教育永恒的主題,完善生命是教育不懈的追求。

(作者系南通大學教育科學學院副教授)

《中國教育報》2019年06月09日第3版 

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