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混合式教學 未來學校教學組織的新模式

發布時間:2019-06-06 作者:朱雪梅 來源:中國教育報

    “互聯網+”時代,混合式教學必將成為未來學校課程實施的主流模式。與傳統課堂教學相比,混合式教學具有很強的復雜性、不確定性與非線性特點,對硬環境與軟環境都有更高的要求。    

    在“互聯網+”時代,學校傳統的面對面單向傳輸式現場學習模式已經不能滿足生長于數字地球上的學生的需求。當前,未來學校的暢想曲已經響起,融合傳統課堂現場學習與網絡在線學習優勢的混合式學習(Blended Learning)將成為未來學校教學組織的主要方式。

2017年,筆者曾在全國范圍內調研“未來你心目中最理想的教學方式”這一問題,共收到31個省份1559名教師的答案,調研結果表明“線上學習與線下研討結合的混合式教學”位居榜首,占34.12%。其余依次為問題解決式教學、啟發式教學法、案例教學法、小組合作教學等。調研說明混合式教學已越來越受到教師的歡迎。

    混合式教學的設計原則

關于混合式教學的概念眾說紛紜,但包含兩項共同的關鍵含義:一是以建構主義學習理論為基礎,強調以學生的學習為中心,知識與能力的習得是學生在主動建構的過程中完成的;二是學習方式是在線學習與線下學習的融合,信息技術的運用成為標志。因此,開展混合式教學總體應該遵循以下幾項原則。

    堅持以兒童為中心的個性化學習

對混合式學習的理解必須建立于兒童中心論的哲學觀基礎之上,必須建立于建構主義學習理論基礎之上。

混合式學習基于網絡的學習平臺,可以極大豐富課程內容,使在線課程成為融合文字、動畫、視頻、探究任務、虛擬實驗等資源的系統化、可選擇的知識圖譜,學生通過在線學習自主確定學習內容,自主定義學習進程,甚至可以通過網絡尋求課程內容的定制服務。由是,在線課程成為開放的情境,再通過線上與線下的協作、會話,實現學習任務的有意義建構。

    堅持“線上自主探究+線下協作研討”有效融合

在線學習與線下現場學習相融合,是混合式學習有別于傳統班級授課方式的最顯著特征。在網絡環境下,借助計算機、平板電腦、智能手機等工具,指導學生根據學習目標與驅動任務,開展個性化、自適應學習,讓學生自主確定學習進程,自主選擇課程內容,自主診斷學習效果。這種改變是自大班授課制以來學習方式的最大變革,其優勢是學生建構知識能力與自主解決問題能力得到增強,有利于學會學習、實踐創新兩大核心素養的養成。

但是,完全的在線學習存在不可避免的虛幻色彩,如學生難以聚焦學習主題而使學習低效等問題。所以,面對面的線下課堂學習不可或缺,在教師組織下的聽講與交流研討有利于師生與生生之間的深度互動,有利于學生意志、品質的形成,這是學生成長過程中不可或缺的情感需求,是理論與實踐充分融合的最佳路徑。

    堅持多元化融合提升學習成效

學習方式的混合,不只是線上與線下相結合的學習場域方面的混合,還應兼備多元化追求,如自主學習與合作學習相互融合、不同學科知識內容相融合、在線測評與線下紙筆測試相融合等。以自主式學習與合作式學習的融合為例,無論是線上還是線下的學習過程,都應該是兩者共生共建的過程。一方面,在線課程平臺的文本、視頻、PPT等資源為學生自主學習提供知識載體,而學習平臺所擁有的交互論壇功能,則為合作學習提供了虛擬空間,并且能使合作學習突破時空界限,特別是大規模開放在線課程平臺(MOOC)或小規模定制在線課程平臺(SPOC)支持下的學習,其網絡化特征使群體在線協作學習成為常態。另一方面,在線下課堂上,自主學習、合作學習、探究學習的開展已成為新一輪基礎教育課程改革的亮點,自主學習是合作學習的基礎,合作學習是自主學習的驅動力。

    混合式教學的組織模式

混合式教學發揮了學生在線學習與集體授課的優勢,其教學組織更加靈活多變,也面臨著更多的不確定性,這對組織者而言是巨大的挑戰。如果以時間軸建立教學模式,可大致分為先行探索、協作研討、拓展鞏固三個階段。

    學生借助學習平臺先行探索

與傳統的課堂教學相比,混合式教學中的在線學習能夠極大地提升學生自主學習能力。按照翻轉課堂先學后教的設計思路,學生對每一個新項目的學習,首先可以借助網絡課程平臺開展自適應學習,因此說這是一個以自主探索為主要特征的環節。

在學生學習開始前,教師首先需要在“博雅云課堂”學習平臺上建立一個虛擬的班級,并向全班同學發布3個探究性導學問題,讓學生帶著任務觀看“探尋中國名畫的秘密”微視頻,閱讀相關文本。這一環節為學生提供了可供選擇的學習資源,確立了學習目標。學生在自主學習過程中,可通過多種方式與他們進行協作交流。為檢查自主學習效果,可以完成在線檢測試題,其優勢是能夠即時反饋正誤,起到診斷與激勵的功能。在此階段,教師主要的職責是輔助學生學習,通過查閱學生學習信息調控學習進程。

    師生在真實課堂中協作探究

在物理世界的真實課堂中,教師的講解能夠讓學生及時獲得新思路、掌握新知識。教師針對課程內容組織的小組合作式教學活動,有利于引導學生高效率地思考、發表見解,通過追問、補問等方式,引導學生進行深度思維,并通過生生互評、教師點評等活動進行及時指導與糾正。

這一階段的學習充分體現了傳統課堂教學的優勢,在面對面的學習過程中,有利于集中解決學習的重難點,這不僅是知識與技能的培養,也是群體協作能力的培養,更重要的是情感態度與價值觀的熏陶。

    學生借助學習平臺拓展鞏固

課后鞏固訓練是教學過程不可或缺的環節,它是克服遺忘的有效手段。利用在線平臺,可以提升鞏固學習的效果。一方面,網絡平臺上的視頻、文本、PPT等學習資源可以無限次重復使用,有利于學生針對未完全掌握的內容及遺忘內容進行復習,以強化認知。另一方面,教師通過網絡平臺發布拓展性探究任務及課后練習作業,可對學生的學習效果進行形成性測評。

    混合式教學充分體現了建構主義學習原理

從上述案例及闡釋中,我們應該認識到混合式教學充分體現了建構主義學習原理。“博雅云課堂”平臺為學生提供了“學習資源超市”,這是為建構性學習創設的情境,而平臺的交互性社區及真實課堂中的合作交流,則實現了協作與會話,在此過程中,學生自我調控學習進程,協作解決驅動任務,其學習的主動性與創造性得到發揮,從而實現了知識的有意義建構。

如果將這樣的教學過程進行歸納與總結,可以建立起混合式教學的一般模式,其流程如文中配圖所示。

“互聯網+”時代,混合式教學必將成為未來學校課程實施的主流模式。與傳統課堂教學相比,混合式教學具有很強的復雜性、不確定性與非線性特點,對硬環境與軟環境都有更高的要求。可以預見,隨著《教育信息化2.0行動計劃》的實施,特別是“三通兩平臺”工程的升級推進,普及混合式教學將離我們越來越近。

(作者系南京師范大學教師教育學院教授;本文系教育部學校規劃建設發展中心未來學校實驗研究重大課題“基于‘博雅云課堂’的‘雙螺旋交互’智慧學習模型的研究”成果)

《中國教育報》2019年06月06日第7版 

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