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缺乏有效專業培訓和統一規范,導致家政市場供求矛盾

構建家政工匠培養的中國模式

發布時間:2019-06-04 作者:閆文晟 來源:中國教育報

進入新時代,老齡化快速發展,全面二孩政策深入推進,家政服務業已成為一種新動能,釋放出巨大需求信號。但從當前家政服務業市場供給現狀來看,存在著從業人員年齡偏大、文化水平偏低、技術技能水平較弱、流動性高、穩定性差等問題。相關人力資源專家認為,缺乏有效的專業培訓和統一規范是導致家政市場供求矛盾的主要原因。

目前,我國家政人才培訓主要有兩種情況。一是社會上家政公司和機構單打獨斗開展的培訓,很多培訓無統一標準、無統一教材、無統一師資,專業化能力不高,職業化意識不強,只能應對保潔、搬家、保姆等傳統的簡單勞務型家政服務市場需求,無法滿足育嬰師、護理員、家政師等更加專業的知識技能型和理財、管家等管理型的高端化、多元化家政市場需求。二是家政類高職院校和開辦家政相關專業職業院校開展的學歷教育,雖然也有社會培訓,但僅是面對社會人員開展的短期培訓,沒有把在校大學生納入培訓范圍,在家政專業能力培訓的理論研究和實踐研究方面仍是空白。因此,改革傳統的單一高職家政專業學歷教育模式,啟動標準化、規范化、專業化、職業化的家政服務技術技能人才專業能力培訓,已成當務之急。

建立完善高職院校家政服務技術技能人才培訓體系,是一項全新的事業,是個系統工程,需要政府部門頂層設計、統籌謀劃,需要教育部門、行業企業、用人單位、從業人員共同努力、齊心協力。

專業能力培訓為主,學歷教育為輔。高職家政專業是一種社會性極強的專業,與人們的生活息息相關,其源于生活、從屬生活、服務生活,家政職業教育本質上是一種生活教育。家政專業的特殊性,決定了人才培養的特殊性,要把活生生的現實生活當作教材,把生活的每一處地方當作課堂,把人才培養放到社會中去完成,把主要精力放到專業能力培訓中去,精簡學歷教育過程,這在本質上與現代學徒制和產教融合的育人模式是一致的。只有讓它回歸社會這片肥沃的土壤中,家政專業才能生根發芽、枝繁葉茂,更需要把高職院校家政專業能力培訓拓展成為培養高端家政服務技術技能人才的試驗田,探索培養“家政工匠”的“中國模式”。

縮短學制。鑒于家政專業的特殊性,應科學設計學制,具體問題具體分析,從實際出發,因專業制宜,改革傳統的高職家政專業三年學制,根據實際需要實行兩年或一年學制。菲律賓家政從業人員要在學校接受216學時的短時培訓;日本家政從業人員至少要接受130個小時的培訓,相當于兩個學期的時間;美國、英國、澳大利亞等國的學制大多實行兩年全日制學習,在學校一年,在實習機構一年。

實施專業嫁接。從當前的多元化市場需求來看,我們培訓的定位應是復合型家政服務技術技能人才,應嫁接護理、康復、嬰幼兒哺育、學前教育、會計等相關專業。菲律賓沒有家政專業,只有與家政相關的酒店、保健、護理、幼兒看護等專業,家政課程貫穿于其他專業人才培養之中,他們會說英語,能夠勝任基本的日常交流,擁有護士、醫師、教師執照;美國已將家政學課程改為“家庭和消費者科學”,實踐課主要在醫院產房、幼兒園機構等進行。培育復合型家政服務技術技能人才,與國家提出的“1+X”證書制度是不謀而合的。

改革家政專業招生制度。《國家職業教育改革實施方案》提出面向在校學生和全體社會成員開展職業培訓,面向現役軍人的教育培訓,支持其在服役期間取得多類職業技能等級證書,支持適合的退役軍人進入職業院校和普通本科高校接受教育和培訓;人社部出臺文件,到2022年,全部新生代農民工都要進行技能培訓;《中國教育現代化2035》提出,強化職業學校和高等學校的繼續教育與社會培訓服務功能,開展多類型多形式的職工繼續教育。沒有專業化的技能培訓就沒有競爭力,這些舉措都有強烈的培訓意愿和需求,倒逼我們改革傳統的招生制度,不斷擴大生源范圍。

打造多元辦學格局。《國家職業教育改革實施方案》提出對家政業加大政策扶持力度。支持符合條件的家政服務龍頭企業創辦家政服務類職業院校,對小微家政服務企業給予稅費減免。鼓勵地方以政府購買服務方式,為化解行業過剩產能企業轉崗人員、建檔立卡貧困勞動力免費提供家政服務培訓。支持員工制家政服務企業配建職工集體宿舍。作為地方家政類高職院校,要充分利用政策東風,積極創辦家政公司,創建高水平家政服務技術技能人才培訓基地。

加強價值觀培訓。職業本身并沒有高低貴賤之分,只有社會分工不同。“過去有一種陳舊觀念,認為家政服務低人一等,是‘伺候人的’,這種封建等級觀念萬萬要不得”。目前,湖北已率先將家庭服務業從業人員納入技能人才獎勵范圍;在菲律賓和日本,家政業被視為很體面的一種職業,不僅工資高,而且受人尊重,這與長期以來形成的良好職業素養不無關系。菲傭具有較強的服務意識,無論是服務技能還是服務態度,都近乎無可挑剔。日本實行“體察文化”,保障服務態度,其核心是將心比心、每時每刻都站在他人角度去考慮問題。“三百六十行,行行出狀元”,任何人只要努力工作,都可以在他所從事的行業里發揮出其應有的價值,照樣能成為社會楷模。

(作者系山東省菏澤家政職業學院副教授)

《中國教育報》2019年06月04日第10版 

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