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園外培訓熱,幼兒“上班”苦

發布時間:2019-06-02 作者:洪秀敏 馬玲 朱文婷 來源:中國教育報

“英語、美術、圍棋、鋼琴、輪滑……周六一天要上5個培訓班”,這是課題組在北京某幼兒園調研時,一名大班幼兒分享的自己的周末生活。2018年8月,針對培訓班違規無序發展問題,國務院頒布了重要的規范性文件。那么,學前階段幼兒上培訓班的情況如何?課題組通過對北京市642名幼兒園大班幼兒進行訪談后發現,幼兒在園外上培訓班的情形仍不容樂觀。

藝多不壓身?孩子的苦誰知道

超過九成的大班幼兒報了園外培訓班。調研顯示,僅有7.6%的幼兒反映沒參加培訓班,92.4%的大班幼兒參加了不同類型的校外培訓班。其中,既有以培養“興趣”為主的繪畫、舞蹈、樂器等才藝類培訓班,也有以英語、拼音、識字等小學化內容為主的知識類培訓班。

“五花八門”的培訓班充斥著幼兒的生活,有81.5%的幼兒參加了3門以上的培訓班,最多的高達7門。訪談中有幼兒說道,“媽媽給我報了英語、跆拳道、圍棋,周六還要練輪滑,只有周日下午可以在家玩”“我周一到周五至少三個晚上都有課,有時候一晚上有兩門課”。“趕場式”的培訓多頭并進,已經成為幼兒園小朋友們生活的常態。

高頻率、超前學的校外培訓課使幼兒身心疲憊。調研結果顯示,近1/3的幼兒明確表示“上興趣班很累”,61%的幼兒反映回家后要完成作業及練習,還有2/3以上的大班幼兒表示在校外培訓班學習過拼音、漢字、算術、英語及背古詩等。超前超綱的小學化培訓內容及各種技能練習,擠占了幼兒原本就不多的游戲和休息時間,更加重了幼兒對學習的厭惡情緒。62.1%的幼兒表達“想有更多的時間玩耍”,有不少幼兒告訴研究者,“我很煩英語,每天追著我,還要打卡”“周三、周五下午連著上課,一直到晚上7點,中間只有一個小時吃飯時間,有幾次我都累哭了”“有時候我都在路上睡著了”。

喪失選擇權的被動學習令幼兒有苦難言。調查發現,60%以上的幼兒表示興趣班是爸爸媽媽挑選的,只有27%的幼兒表示家長在報班前會征求他們的意見。有的幼兒愁眉苦臉地說,“媽媽要我上油畫班、學鋼琴,可我只喜歡跆拳道”“我不想去興趣班,可媽媽不同意”。當被問到“如果你不愿意上某些培訓班,是否會和爸爸媽媽說”時,近八成幼兒回答“不想說,說了他們也不會同意”,兩成的幼兒表示“不敢說,因為爸爸媽媽會發脾氣”。幼兒無奈地選擇服從和“被安排”,默默承受著沉重的“愛的枷鎖”。

理性選擇,還幼兒快樂童年

今年3月,針對全國校外培訓機構整治工作,教育部陳寶生部長再次發聲:“這一次,不獲全勝決不收手。”如今,專項治理已進入攻堅階段。

整治培訓機構,將兒童從過重的負擔中解放出來,對于兒童健康發展有著重要意義。教育家陶行知說過:“幼兒比如幼苗,培養得宜,方能發芽滋長,否則幼年受了損傷,即不夭折,也難成材。”幼兒處在人生發展的起步階段,這一階段的學習是啟蒙性的、奠基性的,如果將有限的時間過多地集中于某項或某幾項內容的學習,必然會弱化其他內容的學習,導致幼兒的發展失衡。面對校外培訓,家長必須理性選擇,學會聆聽幼兒的心聲,從幼兒的真實需求和感受出發,為幼兒提供適宜的學習機會,讓幼兒享有快樂幸福的童年。

充分尊重幼兒,將興趣的選擇權交給幼兒。校外培訓應該是在幼兒感興趣的前提下,基于幼兒全面發展的需求而進行的,它是“學有余力”的培訓。家長要學會觀察幼兒、了解幼兒,發現幼兒的深度興趣,讓興趣成為幼兒學習的原動力。同時,要尊重幼兒的學習愿望和意愿,給幼兒自主選擇的權利。

關注幼兒身心健康,減輕幼兒學習負擔。一方面,家長要密切關注幼兒學習中的身體狀態。根據幼兒身心發展特點,合理安排幼兒的時間和活動,不可盲從攀比,致使幼兒過度疲勞;要及時關注幼兒在學習中的情緒感受,當他們表現出“不想去”“不愿意去”等抵觸情緒時,要尊重幼兒,不強迫幼兒去做不愿意做的事。

珍視游戲獨特價值,讓幼兒回歸快樂童年。游戲是幼兒的基本活動方式和主要學習方式,也是幼兒的基本權利。面對名目繁多的課外培訓班,要從幼兒的需要和興趣出發,理性而有限度地進行選擇,避免占用幼兒過多的游戲時間;要為幼兒創造更多游戲和玩耍的機會,讓幼兒在游戲中獲得多方面的發展,在游戲中回歸快樂童年。

(作者單位:北京師范大學、內蒙古自治區團校)

《中國教育報》2019年06月02日第2版 

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