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追尋游戲精神 實現游戲課程化

發布時間:2019-06-02 作者:王振宇 來源:中國教育報

所謂游戲精神,就是一個人自主地創造和愉悅地體驗生命的能力、生存的價值和生活的幸福的積極精神。秉持游戲精神,游戲課程化理論認為,游戲是兒童的天性,兒童的游戲等于學習,游戲是兒童的權利。游戲既是幼兒園教育的手段,也是幼兒園教育的目的。

我們知道,游戲是幼兒園教育的基本活動。這一共識寫進了教育部的諸個文件中,并成為幼教界的共識。但在實際上,絕大部分的幼兒園沒有做到使游戲成為幼兒園的基本活動,而只是一個限定在特定時間或特定空間里的局部活動。究其原因,與幼兒園教育中存在著游戲和課程兩個核心的傳統有關。在這個傳統中,游戲被解釋為自然狀態中的動物性行為,而課程則是傳遞學科知識體系的載體或渠道。這種“雙核”現象,正是造成游戲與課程難以結合、游戲不可能成為幼兒園教育的基本活動的結構性原因,也是導致幼兒園教育小學化的學理原因。

游戲課程化的理念正是針對我國幼兒園教育的“雙核”現象,提出要變雙核為單核的目標。只有實現了這個“核變”的過程,《幼兒園教育指導綱要(試行)》中幼兒園教育“以游戲為基本活動”的原則精神才能真正落實。游戲課程化理論認為,游戲是兒童的天性,幼兒的游戲等于學習,游戲是兒童的權利。游戲既是幼兒園教育的手段,也是幼兒園教育的目的。幼兒園教育中的游戲,是手段與目的的統一。這個觀點是游戲課程化的理論核心。

圍繞五大領域生發活動

游戲課程化過程中的生長點,是指圍繞著五大領域的教育內容生發出來的教育活動。通過這樣的教育活動而產生的新游戲,不是最初游戲的簡單重復,而是在更高層面上的引申和提高。游戲鏈的不斷延伸所組成的課程,與傳統課程最本質的區別是讓兒童在自己的游戲中發現問題、解決問題,在游戲的活動中發展能力、增加個體經驗,處理交往中的問題,而不是像傳統課程中根據學科知識的線性遞進。杜威早就指出,“教育的最大毛病,是把學科看作是教育的中心”,“其改革的方法,只是把教育的中心搬一個家,從學科上面搬到兒童上面”。游戲課程化正是教師根據兒童的興趣和經驗,在與他們自己有切身關系的游戲活動中進行支持和引導。因此,對于幼兒來說,游戲課程化正是他們適宜的課程模式。這一課程模式體現著課程目標中目標與過程的統一,即實現目標要重視過程,經歷過程要有目標意識。

游戲課程化理論認為,幼兒園的課程,就是幼兒學習的進程。幼兒不是知識的容器,而是一個個有主動性、有創造性的鮮活個體。游戲課程化把游戲既當作幼兒園教育的手段,又當作幼兒園教育的目的,實現了手段與目的的統一,從而實現了由雙核變單核的“核變”過程。

打開幼兒教師新思路

游戲課程化為廣大幼兒教師打開了新思路,賦予了新任務。幼兒教師的職責不是簡單地上課、教學,而是觀察兒童的游戲,關注他們游戲的興趣和動機,成為有能力的游戲者,善于分析兒童游戲的過程和探究什么內容,及時提供有效的支持和引導,將更大文化范疇里的因素帶進幼兒的游戲中,與他們已有的經驗相結合,或者發揮自己的想象力,參與到兒童的游戲之中去提供材料、設想新情境和提供新細節,尋找出教育的生長點,與孩子們一道構建新游戲,而不是把自己的工作看作是按一個主題來上課,更不要把自己的絕大部分精力消耗在“磨課”上。游戲課程化要求我們幼兒教師有趣味、有愛心、有專業知識和觀察技能、有創造性。也就是說,幼兒教師要有游戲精神。所謂游戲精神,就是一個人自主地創造和愉悅地體驗生命的能力、生存的價值和生活的幸福的積極精神。這樣,在這一點上,聞名遐邇的安吉游戲以及安吉幼教人,為我們樹立了一個成功的典范。

以游戲課程治理小學化

游戲課程化也是治理幼兒園教育小學化的有效途徑。所謂幼兒園教育的小學化傾向,就是在幼兒園教育中按小學生的學習進程來規范和要求幼兒的學習。個中原因十分復雜,與地區和家庭的經濟水平、社會發展水平、教育理念、教育體制、師資質量、家長訴求因素有關,與幼兒園學科教學的課程模式也有很大關系。如果我們不從根本上改革現行的課程模式問題,那么幼兒園教育的小學化傾向是很難根治的。幼兒園教育小學化傾向有顯性和隱性的兩類表現。顯性的表現是在幼兒園教育中進行大量的讀、寫、算、的機械訓練。隱性的表現是在幼兒園教學中強調統一教材、統一目標、統一要求、統一進度、統一標準,全然不顧兒童發展的個別性。事實證明,顯性的小學化傾向容易發現和遏制,而隱性的傾向難以解決。游戲課程化能從根本上杜絕大一統的僵化教育模式,把以傳統的目標模式為主的學科教育轉變為以過程模式為主的經驗導向教育上來,從而達到根治幼兒園教育的小學化傾向。

凡是踐行游戲課程化的幼兒園都有一個深切的體會,游戲課程化是打破幼兒教育中現行僵化模式的好辦法。教育部2018年7月《關于開展幼兒園“小學化”專項治理工作的通知》指出:“以游戲為基本活動,靈活運用集體、小組和個別等各種形式,合理安排和組織幼兒一日生活,促進幼兒在活動中通過親身體驗、直接感知、實踐操作進行自主游戲和學習探究。”實踐已經開始證明,游戲課程化有利于充分發揮幼兒教師的責任心和創造性,培養思維和手腦并用、善于合作、熱愛發現的新型人才。教育和知識,不能通過教師簡單的教學方式來完成,應該在游戲中發展幼兒的好奇心和想象力,在有引導的游戲中得以完成。這是教師專業成長和職業成熟的有效途徑。還有一點值得注意的是,游戲課程化有效地減輕了廣大幼兒教師的文案雜務,要求教師們把注意力集中在觀察幼兒的游戲行為、解讀和分析他們的興趣和需要上,從而增加了職業的樂趣,減少了職業的倦怠感。

游戲課程化本質上是構建一種符合國情的幼教課程模式。幼兒教育要適應我國的文化和社會經濟發展水平,就迫切需要構建一個符合國情的課程模式。迄今為止的各種幼教模式都有它特定的社會背景和指導思想,我們應該根據我國幼教實踐的發展,不斷調整和重構理論來指導幼教實踐的不斷提高。近年來,在國家層面的領導和推進下,我國幼兒教育取得一系列重大改進,得到社會各界的重視和關心。幼教界越來越關注游戲,關注探索游戲與課程的關系,這為推進游戲課程化創造了良好的氛圍。從目前踐行游戲課程化的各地幼兒園的經驗來看,游戲課程化是能夠實現的,也是有益的。我們經常說的所謂真游戲,就是指達到游戲手段與目的統一的游戲。

(作者系華東師范大學教授)

《中國教育報》2019年06月02日第2版 

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