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幼兒動作發展不等同于幼兒體育

發布時間:2019-06-02 作者:莊弼 來源:中國教育報

長期以來,幼兒園沒有體育活動大綱和開展體育活動內容指引,體育項目的運動技能與人類基本動作練習存在混淆不清問題,在一定程度上影響了幼兒身心的發育。2012年教育部頒發了《3—6歲兒童學習與發展指南》,在健康領域中對3—6歲兒童提出動作發展的要求,為幼兒園開展體育活動指明了方向,《指南》健康領域動作發展的兩個目標是要求幼兒“具有一定的平衡能力,動作協調、靈敏;具有一定的力量和耐力以及手的動作靈活協調”。這是根據人類動作發展規律而提出的,符合幼兒身心發展規律。然而,在我們的調研與了解中發現目前一些幼兒園確實存在兒童動作發展的誤區。

幼兒的動作發展,首先發展的是大骨骼與大肌肉,而后才是小骨骼與小肌肉群的發展與協調,因此,在骨骼與肌肉的協調發展中幼兒經歷著各階段的既定動作發育過程并呈現一種不變的順序。過早地讓兒童掌握運動技能,將會促進其小肌肉群的發展,違背了人類身體基本活動規律。然而這樣的實踐誤區卻較為常見:

把體育等同于動作發展。我國一直以來沒有動作發展的概念,動作是體育的基礎,體育是動作的高級階段,幼兒園的教師通常把自己在學校體育教師教的體育直接教給幼兒。不少幼兒園忽視幼兒身體基本活動能力的培育、教養和養成,出現與中小學學生相媲美的幼兒籃球、幼兒足球,甚至幼兒高爾夫球等動作與體育之間的混淆不清的現象,導致不可避免地出現小學學習內容或違背幼兒身心發展規律的現象。

缺乏動作發展的內容指引。一直以來幼兒園缺乏體育活動內容指引,雖然《指南》提出了目標要求,但是實踐中仍然缺乏對3—6歲各年齡段幼兒的體育活動內容的具體指引,特別是針對不同年齡組的特點,選擇發展幼兒身體的最佳動作方面有待細化。

缺乏了解動作發展內容的專業人員。學前教育專業沒有動作發展課程,體育教育專業缺乏幼兒教育知識。

缺乏促進兒童動作發展的器材。與大中小學相比較,學前階段缺乏國家標準,不少高大上的幼兒活動器材功能單一,作用不大,許多現存的器材沒有按照人類動作發展設置。

缺乏科學、全面的動作發展評價。目前對幼兒身體素質的評價,只有《國民體質測定標準手冊(幼兒部分)》,測試項目只有10米折返跑、立定跳遠、網球擲遠、雙腳連續跳、走平衡木,事實上這幾項指標難以全面評價兒童的身心發展水平。

基于這樣的誤區,我們建議應統一制定國家幼兒園體育活動大綱(這里需要補充的是,幼兒園缺乏體育專業教師,不宜制定課程標準),規范幼兒園體育活動內容,使幼兒園的體育教學及體育活動有依據。同時,依據《指南》的基本要求,編寫以基本動作技能為依據,建立不同年齡階段的、循序漸進的、由易到難的位移技能(如跑步)、非位移技能(如扭轉)及操作技能(如投擲)的可操控的體育活動體系。

與此同時,對于幼兒體育教師的培養也應同步建設。我們應在師范院校學前教育專業及體育教育專業中,開設幼兒體育活動(動作發展)課程。除了鼓勵學前教育專科學校開設“動作發展與健康管理”專業外,應擴大至師范院校學前教育專業及體育教育專業中,培養出符合我國實現教育現代化需求的學前教育合格師資。

制定幼兒園體育活動器材國家標準,研制一批符合幼兒身心發展規律的體育活動器材。幼兒園體育活動器材一要適應幼兒園開展戶外體育活動的要求,二要安全、功能齊全。達到幼兒園的教師帶著幼兒完成一次戶外體育活動器材的練習后,幼兒的“三維動作”能力就得到增強和發展,只有這樣才能真正達到“指南”動作發展的要求。

構建功能性幼兒園戶外體育活動場地。目前幼兒園的戶外場地建設功能較為混亂,隨意性大。隨著《指南》的不斷落實,幼兒園可在原有場地布局的基礎上,逐步按照“三維動作”的理念布置場地及安放體育活動器材,新建幼兒園可構建“三維動作”器材的戶外體育活動場地,使戶外體育活動場地的功能達到《指南》的要求,為幼兒提供一個科學、有效的活動空間。

加強幼兒教師培訓,針對幼兒園體育教師缺乏的現狀,可以通過各種途徑培訓幼兒園教師,使教師能夠了解和掌握“三維動作”理論及實踐,擁有基本開展幼兒園體育活動的知識和技能,保證幼兒園體育活動的正常開展。

制定符合幼兒身心發展規律的評價標準。幼兒在動作發展過程中伴隨著智力及情感的發展。僅僅測試幼兒體能不能完整了解其身心發展情況,要研制一套科學又簡單易行的幼兒“三維動作”能力、智力及個性品質的評價指標及方法。

(作者系廣州商學院體育與健康研究所所長、教授)

《中國教育報》2019年06月02日第2版 

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