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家校互動聯通尚需三大推力

發布時間:2019-05-30 作者:李亞娟 左坤 來源:中國教育報

教育從本質上看是關系的哲學,目前家庭與學校都高度重視教育,家庭用力、學校努力,但教育效果與生態并不理想。家校之間的對話、協作、互補、聯通,尚需從文化信念、關系機制建立、專業系統支持、決策制定等方面進行探索。

家校互動聯通仍有阻力

家校合作的核心信念,是教育時空互動、對話與聯通。家校合作是家校共同支持學生成長的動態過程,時間維度上是長期、持續的合作,不是偶然、間斷的;空間維度上是整體、連續、系統的,不是斷點、散狀的;從目標內容維度看,家校合作的目標、內容、實施、評估、實踐等各方面皆緊扣教育對象生命成長的內在邏輯。

互動、對話與聯通的家校合作,是雙方建立在情感理性基礎之上的共同經營,彼此相信對方愿意合作、能合作也有能力合作。但據2018年10月南京市教育科學研究所對全市的調查顯示,南京市家校合作存在四個方面的阻力:

家校合作信念尚未健全。87.58%的家長認為家校合作可以提高孩子的學習成績,認同這一點的教師僅占7.06%,59.88%的教師認為更應該促進學生全面綜合的發展,可見雙方對合作的期望值截然不同。

家校合作的機制尚未健全。家校合作工作缺乏整體性、計劃性、針對性與制度約束力。

家校合作的專業支持系統尚未健全。64.20%的學校定期召開家長會,43.33%定期開展家庭教育知識培訓,54.37%明確要求班主任家訪,37.95%定期開展親子活動,41.95%設有家長學校,但學校主導的家校共育更多是服務于教育教學而非家庭教育。

家校合作的政策尚未完善。40%的校長、25.21%的教師和11.8%的家長認為家庭教育應由政府負責,39%的校長、52.15%的中小學教師和55.5%的家長認為應該由教育行政部門、婦聯等負責。但區域層面家校合作政策與指導性文件尚需完善,缺乏有效的家校合作共育評估工具。

家校互動聯通動力不足

有研究表明,家校合作對提高學生的學業成就、社交能力及健康心智都有積極促進作用,但實現有機結合尚需構建價值信念系統、互動對話教育機制和專業支持系統等三方面的推力。

一是建立家校合作價值信念系統。家校合作的首要推力是明確家校雙方是命運共同體,堅持權利平等、對話協商、合作共贏、交流互動、科學發展的價值信念,學校創造并持續合作共育文化,家庭也依次全面參與到孩子的學習、學校事務和當地社區中,不斷幫助教育對象獲得成功。

二是建立家校互動對話教育機制。探索讓每個家庭參與決策制定,學校積極建立家庭參與兒童學習的支持系統,區域推進家校合作機制,最終實現家庭、學校教育的協同互補、互相促進、協調發展。如南京市江寧高新區中學堅持重要事件家校共同商議、共同決策,南京市岔路學校研制《家庭檔案手冊》,形成教師指導、學生自我管理、家長監督三位一體的互助長鏈。

三是建立家校合作的專業支持系統。家校雙方作為“合伙人”“伙伴”,應堅持科學性、發展性、互動性、包容性、多樣性、多維性、支持性、文化性等原則,建立科研支持系統和基于志愿服務的家校合作制度支持系統,推動家校合作實踐創新。

建立科研支持系統可以通過研究項目引領,如將家校合作納入德育創新獎評選;可以通過專題培訓,提升一線教師家校合作的專業技能;可以通過主題式德育科研推進;還可以把家校共育課程作為校本課程成果評選的主要內容,孵化家校聯系冊、家校共育指導手冊、家校合作公益團隊、家長工作坊、家校合作平臺等成果。

基于志愿服務的制度支持系統,主要包括家長學校總校和留守兒童之家。南京市教育局專門設立家長學校工作指導委員會,各區開展“鄉村流動課堂”志愿服務活動,社區、街道、山村互相借力、優勢互補,彌補留守兒童的教育缺失。

家校互動聯通亟待創新

互動、對話、聯通的家校合作,實質是追求有品位的家庭教育與有品質的學校教育,在教育的時間與空間、手段與方法、路徑與策略、科學與藝術等多維系統中,產生有互動、有對話、有智慧、有發展、有追求、有效果、有生命的教育生態,多元創新家校合作的支持系統。

比如組織“名師公益大講堂”,將廣大熱心公益的骨干教師和專業教育工作者聯合起來,向社會無償提供權威性、專業性的教育教學服務,以創新的方式服務支持家校合作。

比如提供多維空間和互聯支持,學校、家庭、社會教育共同建立家校合作教室。兒童成長的第一間教室是家庭,第二間教室是學校,第三間教室即將二者打通,實現優質資源共享、家校合作聯動、教育內涵發展的無限可能。

比如讓大型社區參與進來,認可社區在教育生態中的整合推動作用,在管理體系中設立社區代表,讓社區參與學校能力建設和改革。

在新媒體時代,要重視大數據與平臺支持,注重大數據采集并進行動態管理。還要引入駐校社工的專業支持,借助駐校社工作為解決特殊問題的專業指導者、心理疏導行為矯正的輔導者、家校沖突化解的調解者,提升學校德育隊伍處理特殊問題的專業度,激發“學校—家庭—社區”三位一體教育新模式的活力。

(作者單位:南京市教育科學研究所)

《中國教育報》2019年05月30日第9版 

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