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老年照護職業技能等級證書進入1+X證書制度試點

新證書引領養老服務人才培養方向

發布時間:2019-05-28 作者:李斌 來源:中國教育報

從2014年開始,國家陸續取消了一大批職業資格證書。這是因為新形勢下,這些種類繁多、交叉重復、含金量又低的證書成為人才發展的沉重包袱,已經不適應我國行業產業發展的需要,不利于深化人才發展體制機制改革和推動大眾創業、萬眾創新,不利于供給側結構性改革,不利于社會經濟發展。但是,一個職業缺少等級評定證書也不行,將無法衡量專業人員的能力水平,導致這個職業缺乏對人才的吸引力,從業人員也就沒有了前進的動力。

1+X證書制度是國家職業教育改革創新的重要舉措。根據行業企業發展的實際需要,1+X證書制度通過社會化機制,引導建設高質量證書,促進人才培養模式改革,促進更高質量更充分就業的實現。

    養老服務行業快速發展面臨新問題

養老服務行業快速發展,管理亟待規范。近年來,國務院先后出臺《關于加快發展養老服務業的若干意見》《關于促進健康服務業發展的若干意見》,黨的十九大報告中提出,“積極應對人口老齡化,構建養老、孝老、敬老政策體系和社會環境,推進醫養結合,加快老齡事業和產業發展。”健康養老已經成為黨和國家重要的戰略發展領域。當前政府正在構建以“居家養老為基礎、社區服務為依托、機構養老為補充”的養老服務體系,各種養老模式、養老業態競相出現,呈現百花齊放的快速發展局面,管理亟待規范。

專業人才隊伍嚴重短缺,總量亟待擴大。我國1999年進入人口老齡化,目前60歲老年入口已達2.5億,其中需要照護的失能半失能老人超過4000萬,需要養老護理人員至少在1000萬以上,然而我國養老護理人員極度缺乏,現有養老機構護理人員不到30萬,其中只有4萬多人是持有職業資格證書的。面對巨大的人才缺口,我國高職院校開設老年服務與管理專業的只有173所,開設老年保健與管理專業的37所,總計年招生僅為5000人左右。除了養老人才教育基礎薄弱之外,養老行業就業環境、公共教育內容與養老行業實際需要脫節等因素,還導致畢業學生就職意愿低、流失率高。雖然國家及各省市的相關政策不斷出臺,但相對于1000余萬養老護理員缺口,其所提供的就業人數仍然顯得杯水車薪。

服務供給層次水平不高,質量亟待提升。民政部《2016年社會服務發展統計公報》顯示,全國各類養老服務機構和設施14萬個,各類養老床位合計730.2萬張(每千名老年人擁有養老床位31.6張),其中社區留宿和日間照料床位322.9萬張。雖然床位數在迅速增加,但床位空置率卻居高不下,2015年超過了50%。這些數據反映了養老服務供給層次不高、服務質量不高的問題。

促進行業健康發展,亟須建立職業技能水平評價標準。2002年國家頒發《養老護理員國家職業標準》,2011年進行了修訂。然而到2016年持證上崗的養老護理員不到5萬。養老護理員職業資格證書含金量不高,不能真實反映養老護理人員的能力水平,不能與工資收入掛鉤,難以推動養老服務行業提供專業品質的高水平服務,難以調動從業人員的積極性。2017年9月,養老護理員國家職業資格證書未納入國家職業資格目錄清單,養老護理員職業技能鑒定工作在全國已經停止。然而,職業資格和職業技能標準體系缺失,職業水平評價制度尚未建立,專業人員在養老服務機構難以晉級,能力水平無法評價,工資收入和地位難以提升,直接導致養老服務專業人才嚴重流失。當前,基層和機構服務對象呼吁,開展新時代養老服務人才新的評價方式。

    新證書有助于提升人才培養質量

新開發的老年照護職業技能等級證書借鑒了德國、日本等發達國家養老護理經驗,依據國內養老服務政策法規,調研了行業企業崗位工作任務,邀請全國養老服務行業企業的專家進行論證修訂,因此更加符合行業企業發展需要。

新職業技能等級證書體系貫通了職業教育體系的學歷教育和崗位培訓,將有力推動學校的專業辦學更加緊密地適應企業的崗位發展需求,從而促進專業與企業同步發展,有效提升人才培養質量。

學歷證書與新職業技能等級證書的有效融通,將迫使學校的教師更多下到企業,去了解企業崗位需要,參與崗位實踐,參與行業企業服務和技術研發,從而培養真正的雙師型骨干教師,有力推動人才培養質量提升。

新職業技能等級證書體系不但能夠推動學校尋求企業合作,也能夠推動企業主動尋找優質教育資源,開展崗位培訓,成立雙師型教師培養基地、職業教育實訓基地,從而催生一大批與學校緊密對接的產教融合型企業,與學校形成深度融合、互信共贏的共生關系。

新職業技能等級證書體系有利于落實現代學徒制人才培養模式改革。2015年教育部開始推進現代學徒制人才培養模式改革,長沙民政職業技術學院老年服務與管理專業作為首批試點專業,感受最深的就是希望通過政策制度的推進,調動企業主動參與現代學徒制人才培養模式改革的積極性。新的職業技能等級證書的試點,將大力推進招生招工一體化、學習與工作一體化、畢業與就業一體化、人才培養與崗位培訓一體化,將成為現代學徒制人才培養模式改革的重要抓手,有力推動人才培養質量提升。

    實施證書培訓幾個重要關注點

一要強化新證書體系的權威性和公信力。重點要關注證書考試的權威性和公信力,最好組織全國統一考試,每年考試兩次,這樣考試和證書的含金量就會大大增加,從業人員和管理者才會更加重視。

二要促進證書與薪酬體系掛鉤。對于通過培訓和考試并拿到職業技能等級證書的學員,就業要與工作薪酬水平掛鉤,這樣才能增加證書的含金量。對于獲得證書的養老護理人員,建議采用政府資助的形式進行獎勵和補貼。

三要做好培訓監督管理。規范和監督證書培訓和考核程序,避免證書的濫發和濫用。充分發揮培訓評價組織的資源優勢和自律、監督體系優勢。

四要做好課程與證書的對接。職業院校將加大力度推進專業與人才培養模式改革,推動養老服務類的專業課程改革,與職業技能等級證書進行充分對接,在相關部門的監督管理下嚴格控制課程教學過程、規范教學內容、嚴控考試考核。

五要激勵教師主動參與培訓。加大培訓資源開發,鼓勵教師下到企業研究學習崗位(群)新標準、新流程、新技術、新工藝,培養一大批合格的新證書體系培訓講師,有效推動職業教育人才培養和行業企業職業技能培訓工作。

(作者系長沙民政職業技術學院院長)

《中國教育報》2019年05月28日第9版 

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