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讓高職教育走進“一帶一路”

發布時間:2019-05-28 作者:潘懋元 來源:中國教育報

“一帶一路”沿線國家,尤其是古絲綢之路沿線國家,大多數是發展中國家,這些國家在發展過程中,需要高等職業教育培養工匠型的技能人才。

首先,發展中國家需要基本建設,這也是亞洲基礎設施投資銀行設立的宗旨。而基建之首要是鋪路架橋,也就是我們中國的經驗——“要致富,先修路”。許多發展中國家需要培養大量鋪路架橋的工匠型技能人才。

其次,發展中國家大多是農業國,有的還是農業與游牧并存的國家。不論是農業或牧業,都需要改良;而農村與牧區,也需要改造。根據中國精準扶貧的經驗,農業、牧業的改良,農村、牧區的改造,需要培養大量的農業、牧業工匠型技術人才和經營管理人才。其實,其他行業,不論是工業或是商業,也都需要基層的經營管理人才。所有這些農業、牧業工匠和基層經營管理人才,都需要通過高等職業教育來培養。

再其次,發展中國家的服務性行業,即第三產業,也必然要隨著科技的進步與生活水平的提高而發展。尤其是我們已經進入信息社會和網絡化時代,從事服務性行業的就業者,需要有更高的智慧與技能。

中國的高等職業教育,是否具有走進“一帶一路”的條件?答案是肯定的。

中國現有高職院校1418所,比普通本科院校還多,其中有一批示范性高職院校,更為重要的是高職院校的專任教師約47萬人,其中有不低于40%的“雙師型”教師,他們既有一定的學術水平,又有豐富的職業實踐經驗,能夠勝任培養工匠型技能人才。

特別是中國的高等職業教育已經積累了豐富的辦學經驗。例如,如何建設校內外實訓基地,如何形成產、學、研一體化的教育體系,以及如何促使企業成為高等職業教育的重要辦學主體等。這些辦學經驗,都有利于走進“一帶一路”為沿線發展中國家辦好高等職業教育。

不僅發展中國家需要高等職業教育,提高高等職業教育質量、更好地發揮高等職業教育的作用,也是包括發達國家在內所有國家的共同訴求。無論是歐洲職業教育基礎很好的國家,如北歐諸國和德國、英國,還是亞洲的新加坡、日本,以及大洋洲的澳大利亞,都在提高高等職業教育的地位,使高等職業教育更加符合經濟社會轉型發展的現實需要,并融入終身教育體系之中。以日本為例,從今年4月1日開始,將原本實施職業教育而地位與水平較低的短期大學,改制為專業大學(四年制)與專業短期大學(二至三年制),專業大學畢業生可授予學士學位,專業短期大學畢業生也可授予相當于副學士的短期大學學士學位。同時,專業大學和專業短期大學還向社會人士開放,除招收高中畢業生外,廣大社會人士都可按一定要求申請入學,利用夜間課程或白天分段的小班課程進修,積累學分,取得學位。

中國高等職業教育進入“一帶一路”,可以從“一帶一路”辦高職中汲取新經驗,形成新知識,這將對國內高等職業教育起到重要的反饋與激勵作用。過去,中國高等職業院校如何辦學,如何開設課程,如何培養學生,只有從國內的辦學中總結經驗,形成知識。出國辦學,將要用不同的語言文字教育外國學生,不論對于學校的領導管理,還是對于教師的教育教學,都是艱巨的新任務。正是這種艱巨的新任務,激勵高等職業教育的辦學水平與師資水平不斷提高,形成領導管理與教育的新知識。同時,出國辦學,將使高等職業教育進入“國際化”行列。以往,只有“211”“985”“雙一流”這類大學才有“國際化”的資格,而今后高職院校也將出國辦學,培養外國學生,進入“國際化”行列,從而提高中國高等職業院校的地位。今后的高等職業教育同普通本科教育,將不再是層次高低之分,而是兩種不同類型的教育,具有同等重要的地位。

(作者系廈門大學教授,本文為作者在廈門大學“一帶一路”發展論壇上所作報告)

《中國教育報》2019年05月28日第9版 

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