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創新高水平專業群建設路徑

發布時間:2019-05-28 作者:崔巖 來源:中國教育報

■“雙高計劃”建設專欄

中國特色高水平高職學校和專業建設計劃(“雙高計劃”)提出,“聚焦高端產業和產業高端,重點支持一批優質高職學校和專業群率先發展”。高水平專業群是高水平高職學校建設的關鍵所在,與學校改革發展定位密切相關,關系到人才培養與社會服務的方向性和有效性。如何立足學校實際,創新高水平專業群建設路徑,是“雙高計劃”亟待解決的一個重大課題。

專業群建設應突出“高”特征

專業群是高職專業建設的“升級版”,外部對接產業鏈或崗位群需求,內部促進專業協作、資源共享。高水平專業群面向高端產業和產業高端,構建高水平技術技能人才培養體系,打造技術技能創新服務平臺,是高水平高職學校辦學特色、辦學水平和辦學效益的集中體現。

對接產業吻合度高。產業發展是專業群建設的外驅力,是專業群組建的邏輯起點。衡量一個專業群水平高低,首先要看其是否精準對接產業需求,并動態調整、實時優化,實現與產業發展協調互動。高水平專業群緊貼區域產業結構調整規劃,圍繞區域經濟發展戰略規劃的支柱產業和新興產業,聚焦服務面向,優化資源配置,動態調整專業組成、專業結構和專業內涵,推動教育鏈、人才鏈和產業鏈、創新鏈有機銜接,有效服務企業技術研發和產品升級,為增強產業核心競爭力提供有力支撐。

資源整合共享度高。資源整合是專業群建設的內驅力,是優于傳統單體專業建設的直接體現。離散的單體專業建設模式,一個明顯弊端就是辦學資源割裂,造成單體資源不足與整體資源浪費并存。高水平專業群充分發揮集群效應,有機整合課程資源、教師資源與實訓資源,實現資源整合和共享效益最大化,使原本“小”而“散”的單體專業相互支撐,形成人才培養合力。

人才培養產出度高。人才培養是專業群建設的根本任務,是評價專業群成效的根本標準。“群”是專業建設的手段,而不是目的,根本在于實現更高水平的人才培養。高水平專業群是我國高職專業建設和人才培養的最新成果和最高水平,培養一批又一批大國工匠和能工巧匠,形成具有國際競爭力的人才培養高地,為中國產業走向全球產業中高端提供高素質技術技能人才支撐;同時,探索形成一系列的理念、標準、模式、資源、課程、教材,為全國高職人才培養提供指引和借鑒,帶動提升高職教育的學生滿意度、服務貢獻度和社會美譽度。

專業群建設并不是簡單地把幾個專業進行“物理組合”,而是在群統領下,實現專業之間的“化學融合”,促使資源配備和教學組織的系統優化乃至重構。

搭建融合化的產教協同平臺

當前,我國由高速增長轉向高質量發展階段,著力建設現代化經濟體系。面對快速變化的外部產業環境,專業群應發揮集群優勢,實現與產業發展的深度融合。

一是產教協同。服務區域產業轉型升級,深化與產業園區、行業協會、企業的合作,建設集科技開發與咨詢、技術推廣與服務、人才培養等功能為一體的產教融合育人平臺,推進實體化運作的職業教育集團化辦學,與地方“走出去”企業深度合作,利用集群優勢開展國際職業教育服務。

二是教研互促。強化應用導向,圍繞生產生活中的實際問題,打造跨專業的師生技術服務團隊,推動中小企業的技術研發和產品升級,提升服務行業企業社會的技術附加值,成為區域性技術技能積累中心;構建科研反哺教學機制,把科研項目成果轉化為課堂教學案例,實現教學內容與技術進步同步更新,在技術研發中提升師生實踐能力和創新能力。

三是育訓結合。對接行業企業需求,大力開展高技能人才培訓,積極開展職工繼續教育,服務企業員工職業生涯成長,成為行業企業重要的繼續教育基地。

創新柔性化的組織管理模式

專業群突破傳統專業建設的剛性模式,促進資源整合共享,發揮“1+1>2”的集聚效益。

一是建設結構化團隊。改變傳統專業教研室組織方式,打破專業限制,根據不同職業崗位面向,組建結構化教師團隊,更好地貼近市場發展和技術變化前沿;打造高水平專兼結合的教學團隊,校企聯合建設一批名師工作室和大師工作室。

二是建設模塊化課程。探索柔性、可拓展、面向崗位群的課程建設新模式,按照“平臺+模塊+方向”思路,系統重構課程體系。平臺課程相對穩定,整合群內共同必需的知識、技能和素質,幫助學生構建職業整體認知;模塊課程對接職業標準,按不同職業方向分流培養,幫助學生形成崗位核心能力;方向課程機動靈活,跟隨市場需求和技術進步不斷調整,使課程體系實時保持與產業界的信息交流、資源共享。

三是建立開放型培養模式。積極應對求學群體多元化、學習基礎差異化、學習場景多樣化的實際情況,實行彈性學制和學分制,賦予學生群內專業選擇權、課程選擇權、教師選擇權,自主選擇學習路徑和進度,激發學習動力,滿足多途徑成長需求。

完善動態化的持續發展機制

專業群建設不是一成不變的靜態結果,而是伴隨產業發展持續優化升級的動態過程,要健全對接產業、動態調整、自我完善的專業群建設發展機制。

一是動態調整專業構成。適應產業發展需要,在通用共享的群基礎平臺之上,靈活調整專業組成和專業方向,拓展相近或新興專業,通過原有專業的衍生開發、滾動發展,在專業群主體面向保持穩定的同時,增強外部適應性,使專業群富有旺盛活力,生命周期遠遠長于單體專業。

二是動態升級專業內涵。密切跟蹤新技術、新模式、新業態,對接未來產業變革和技術進步趨勢,調整人才培養定位,更新教學內容,將新技術、新工藝、新規范等產業先進元素納入教學標準和教學內容,確保培養目標適應崗位要求、教學內容體現主流技術,人才培養體系與時俱進。

三是動態優化評價機制。以教學診斷與改進為基本制度,以學習者的職業道德、技術技能水平和就業質量,以及產教融合、校企合作水平為核心,內部質量保證與行業、企業等外部質量評價有機結合,實現評價主體多元化、評價內容動態化,持續推動高水平專業群高質量發展。

(作者系陜西省職教學會會長、陜西工業職業技術學院原黨委書記、全國職業院校教學工作診斷與改進專家委員會副主任委員)

《中國教育報》2019年05月28日第9版 

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