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吃喝拉撒無小事

發布時間:2019-05-26 作者:錢麗芬 來源:中國教育報

小班有個叫娜娜的小朋友,比班級中多數孩子都大一些,但她的自理能力卻很差。她在進餐時不能正確使用小勺,總是潑撒飯粒,午睡時不會自己穿脫衣服、鞋子,大便后不會自己擦屁股。于是我只好一次次對她進行指導與幫助。

通過與家長溝通,我了解到娜娜是獨生女,家長平時工作忙,她的起居全由爺爺奶奶照管。老人對娜娜十分疼愛,覺得她吃飯太慢,就急于去喂。怕她把大便弄到身上,就幫她擦,從不讓她自己嘗試。

娜娜的情況雖是個案,但不得不承認,在小班階段,絕大多數幼兒都存在著自理能力較差的問題。

從原因上看,這一方面是由小班幼兒的年齡特點決定的。小班幼兒初步掌握了各種粗大動作和一些精細動作,身體和手的動作已經比較自由,能在成人指導下自己用勺進餐,會自己穿衣褲,會解會扣較容易操作的扣子,會穿不用系鞋帶的鞋子,會自己洗手等。但是他們還沒有掌握正確的方法。比如,不會正確使用小勺進餐,出現潑撒飯粒等現象,這些都是很正常的。因為小班幼兒的小肌肉群發育還不完善,還不能完成一些精細動作。

但更重要的原因在于家長的過度保護。現在,每個家庭孩子都很少,家長對孩子過于呵護,使得他們處在發育期的各種能力無法得到鍛煉。但需要提及的是,家長許多時候是無意識的。他們只是純粹出于對孩子的愛,并不知道自己的行為對孩子的影響。

因此,盡管對于小班幼兒來說,需要培養的能力有多種,比如語言表達能力、傾聽能力等,但最主要的是自理能力的培養。因為自理能力是幼兒最基本的能力,它起著為后續發展奠基的作用。具體來說,主要包括自己吃飯、自己如廁、自己穿脫衣服、形成良好的睡眠和洗漱習慣等。

首先是學會自己吃飯。小班幼兒要學會自己拿勺吃飯,不挑食不偏食,吃飯時要專心,并且能在規定的時間內吃完。如果幼兒做不到這些,家長就要自己找對策。比如不要主動喂幼兒吃飯,特別是讓老人帶的孩子,一定要達成共識,讓幼兒自己用小勺吃飯,而且要教孩子會正確使用小勺。

另外,在吃飯時不要給幼兒看電視或手機,它會轉移幼兒的注意力,使他們吃飯更拖拉。其實,在吃飯時,家長也要在一旁陪伴鼓勵,可以采用激勵法。比如和幼兒說:“今天寶寶和媽媽一起吃飯,看看誰先吃完。”這時,可以故意讓幼兒先吃完,進而給予他們表揚。這時幼兒就會有一種成就感。慢慢地,幼兒就會愿意自己吃飯,而且不會再磨磨蹭蹭。

其次是自己如廁。小班幼兒會有尿濕褲子、把大便拉在褲子上等情況,這是正常的,因為他們的自我意識、自我控制能力比較差。當幼兒告訴教師說:“我要尿尿。”這時他可能在邊說邊尿,或已經把褲子尿濕了。因此,教師在帶幼兒的時候,半個小時左右要提醒他們如廁,同時要教會他們便后提起褲子的正確方法。比如,兩只手要從左右兩邊提褲子,先把小內褲提起來,再去提外褲。家長要讓孩子自己去做,在必要時加以幫助,而不是包辦代替。

再其次是自己穿衣穿鞋。小班幼兒特別愛念朗朗上口的兒歌,因此,可以邊念兒歌邊教穿衣服,增加趣味性。比如穿上衣的兒歌:“一件衣服四個洞,寶寶套進大洞洞,腦袋鉆出中洞洞,小手伸出小洞洞,小紐扣,鉆洞洞,一二三,鉆出來。”穿褲子的兒歌:“兩手抓褲腰,用力往上拉,露出小腳丫,站起提褲子,褲子提整齊,上衣翻出來。”家長也可以用玩具毛絨娃娃,讓幼兒練習,教他們辨別衣服的里外、褲子的前后。

最后是形成良好的睡眠習慣。在幼兒園,教師一般會創設一個寧靜安詳的午睡環境,比如在午睡室的墻上繪制一些幼兒熟悉的圖案,睡前拉好窗簾,讓幼兒一進午睡室就能平靜下來,盡快入睡。教師還可以給幼兒講故事,讓他們在故事的情境中進入夢鄉,大部分幼兒都能安靜入睡。家長也應當在睡前給幼兒營造一個良好的安睡環境,比如講故事、放輕音樂等,但千萬不能強迫他們入睡。

雖然“吃喝拉撒”這些事說起來并不大,但對于小班幼兒來說,卻是他們的生活大事。如果小班階段,幼兒某方面的能力沒能得到很好的培養與鍛煉,那么,培養的任務就會被轉移到中、大班,甚至小學階段。追蹤許多生活能力欠缺的成年人,最后總會發現問題出在他們年幼時。因此,只有家庭與幼兒園攜手,把幼兒的“吃喝拉撒”當成一件大事,才能給他們的未來發展打下一個好的基礎。

(作者單位:云南省昆明市祿勸彝族苗族自治縣幼兒園)

《中國教育報》2019年05月26日第4版 

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