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“撥浪鼓”喚醒的教育反思

發布時間:2019-05-26 作者:宋娟 來源:中國教育報

撥浪鼓是一種古老又傳統的民間樂器和玩具,從造型、色彩到聲音都引發了孩子們的關注,于是,我們開啟了撥浪鼓美工制作活動。

活動中,俊俊在盒子的一側打了一個洞眼,想拿起釘子在另一側也鉆一個,卻怎么也不能將釘子鉆過去,于是,他將盒子的拿法換了一個方向,橫著鉆,結果還是鉆不進去,他試了半天,額頭上已經冒出汗珠。

俊俊發現我在關注他,便向我求助。我放下相機,和他一起尋找問題的原因所在。我們發現除了外在因素盒子太軟之外,還要巧用勁,最重要的是這次他選擇的釘子不帶花紋。我的出現讓他很快找到了好辦法,那就是選擇螺絲釘。不久,他很快打完了盒子的另一個洞眼,然后小心翼翼耐心地將線穿進細小的洞眼里……

在和俊俊一起解決困難之后,我發現他一個細微的經驗學習過程,就是在他準備鉆下一個鼓棒洞眼時,發現釘子被別的小朋友取走,便立即向別組的小朋友借釘子,眼神、手勢、語言都在特別強調:“我要帶花紋的釘子。”也許他不明白螺絲釘中的螺紋起到鞏固性強、緊固力大等作用的科學道理,但在活動中卻收獲了自我的生活經驗——帶花紋的螺絲釘鉆眼很快而且還省力。

其實,在撥浪鼓活動中,對于材料的投放,我只是提供了制作撥浪鼓的基本材料,對釘子的投放類型沒有特意探討和研究過,然而俊俊創作撥浪鼓的過程給了我反思、觀察的教育啟示:

一是探索課程路徑,關注幼兒視角。一個好的活動材料往往貌似簡單,卻暗含內在的多功能性、科學性、教育性,能吸引幼兒反復專注地操作,并引發幼兒學會運用多種方法和策略去解決問題,發現其中的奧秘。為此,作為教師,要依據活動的內涵深入探究材料投放的合理性、科學性,引導幼兒主動探究,養成良好的學習品質。

二是關注個體差異,有效支持學習。幼兒來自不同的家庭環境和教育背景,在認知、能力、情感等方面體現不同的個體差異性。《3—6歲兒童學習與發展指南》中提出:要尊重幼兒發展的個體差異。既要準確把握幼兒發展的階段性特征,又要充分尊重幼兒發展連續性進程上的個別差異,支持和引導每個幼兒從原有水平向更高水平發展,按照自身的速度和方式到達。為此,我們的關注點不能只落在幼兒“做得怎么樣”的結果上,而應落在有效觀察幼兒在學習的過程中“是怎樣做的,為什么這么做”之上,通過觀察幼兒行為—分析核心價值—依據發展特點—支架多元策略—推動產生新經驗等觀察步驟,及時有效地給予支持和指導,不斷促進幼兒發展。

當撥浪鼓做完的時候,所有參與活動的孩子都非常興奮,特別是俊俊,有的還邊唱邊敲打,玩起了音樂會游戲,而我在被孩子們快樂的情緒、專注的神情、成功的體驗所深深感染的同時,也開啟了在教育旅途上的反思與成長……

(作者單位:山東省棗莊市嶧城區壇山街道中心幼兒園)

《中國教育報》2019年05月26日第3版 

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