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美國大學生的學費誰來付

發布時間:2019-05-24 作者:李頌 來源:中國教育報

據2018年美國媒體報道,3/10的美國父母沒有為孩子的大學費用投入任何資金。只有1/7的父母會提前為子女上大學儲蓄,比兩年前的72%有所下降。根據美國一家投資公司剛公布的數據,僅有29%的父母表示,他們計劃全額支付孩子上大學的費用。而兩年前的這一數字是43%。平均而言,美國父母現在只希望支付孩子的大學總費用的62%,低于兩年前的70%。

跟美國同事聊天,問起他們上大學的學費是誰付的。30歲的湯姆說他和太太都是自己申請的學生貸款,加起來一共貸款10萬美元,還款利率2%—3%,8年還沒還完。

上學期間,他一直在一家美國連鎖大型超市打零工,但兼職不能超過20小時。校園工的機會特別稀缺。現在湯姆的太太在教書,因為不是全職,年薪只有3萬多美元。

當被問及當時父母是否有資助,他說,他父親的年薪一直在5萬美元左右。這個數字沒窮到能讓他減免學費,又沒富到能給他支付學費。

對于“中產”的概念,美國定義為中位數工資的65%到200%之間都是中產階層。美國中位數工資在2016年是5.7萬美元。中產底層是最苦的,各種福利輪不上,日子過得捉襟見肘。

那么,美國人會不會因為貧窮而不能給孩子付學費?

“大學學費是要她自己負擔的。”我在美國第一份工作的同事談及自己女兒大學學費時,不假思索地說,“我當然不會拿我的稅后收入來付她的學費。她要么自己貸款,要么自己考獎學金。上學是她自己的事。”

美國大學學費昂貴。其中,兩年制學校學費最便宜,對本州學生是一年3500美元。四年制公立大學對本州學生一年9500美元,對外州學生25000美元。四年制私立高校一年33000美元。以上不包括生活費,一般20000美元一年,看所在州的房租和個人的消費習慣。

與我探討美國學費的三個美國人,都說自己父母沒有資助過自己的大學學費。湯姆說:“如果從頭來過,我會先上兩年社區學院,再轉學到州立大學。因為社區學院不僅學分便宜,還能住在家里,省一大筆生活費。”他和太太每個月都小心翼翼還學生貸款,不敢錯過一次,不然利息就會漲,惡性循環就開始了。

韶妮是4個孩子的母親,她每個月再節衣縮食也只能給孩子們的學費存一點點錢。“實際上,我丈夫和我都沒有辦法讓4個孩子都上大學。他是一名公立學校的老師,我是一名自由職業者,收入有限。”她說。而且他們認為,為孩子的大學全額付錢對他們來說并不是最好的辦法。

“我們自己在大學期間會打工,拿獎學金。父母出錢的同學成績都很糟糕,那是因為他們拿父母當自動提款機,錢來得容易就不知道珍惜。打工讓我早早懂得了生活的艱難。”韶妮說,讓孩子明白靠自己打拼改善生活是人生的第一課。

美國大學的資助分兩種,一種是基于成績優秀頒發的獎學金,一種是低收入家庭的助學金,由美國聯邦、州或機構提供。聯邦政府的助學金在2019年最多不超過6000美元。州政府和學校提供另外的補助,再加上學習或運動優秀會得到獎學金、勤工儉學,以及學生貸款,學生不靠父母也能把大學念下來,倒是從未聽說過自己想上學,但因為貧困而上不起的情況。

有一天,我遇到了另一位同事羅杰,在回答是否替兩個女兒負擔學費時,卻給了我肯定的答案。

“二女兒本科4年一直拿獎學金,自己還打工。當初她被兩家大學錄取,密歇根那家大學排名還要靠前一些,但沒有獎學金,她自己就去了給全額獎學金的普渡大學,但接下來4年醫學院每年學費生活費加一起要七八萬美元。我可不愿讓她像別的孩子那樣貸款,到三四十歲都還不完……”羅杰說,“4年醫學院學習,外加一年實習,兩年住院醫生,工資很低。我會一直支持她。所以我要繼續努力工作。”他彎起胳膊鼓起肱二頭肌。

羅杰夫婦都是名校畢業,所以目前收入不錯,但為了不讓兩個女兒貸款讀大學,他們的生活一直很節儉。

《中國教育報》2019年05月24日第6版 

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