首頁>檢索頁>當前

美國私立學校學券制度有效促進公平了嗎

發布時間:2019-05-24 作者:郝丹丹 來源:中國教育報

美國教育部部長貝特西·德沃斯(Betsy DeVos)近年來一直在推動一個由美國聯邦政府資助的私立學校學券項目。目前,美國已有29個州施行該項目,通過直接支付學費或以稅收來抵免學費,為學生上私立學校提供支持。但是,最近相關評估顯示,這些計劃在提高教育質量方面并不十分有效,使用學券的學生成績沒有提高或下降。

美國進步分析中心發現,學券計劃在美國許多農村地區并非一個可行方案,因為這些計劃可能會使已經擁有較低學校密度的社區資金緊張,公共資金應用于確保所有學生都能接受高質量的公共教育,但私立學校學券計劃卻將資金從公立學校轉移。

美國進步分析中心表示,當學生參加私立學校學券計劃時,他們可能會喪失一些公立學校的權利。私立學校可能會以一些歧視的方式來對待學生,甚至勒令學生退學。

1964年美國《民權法案》第六條禁止任何接受聯邦資金的學校因“種族、膚色或國籍”而歧視學生,這有效約束了明確種族歧視的私立學校。但是,也有一些政策和規則可能看似種族中立,但仍然具有針對特定學生群體實施的效果。著裝或發型上的限制會使某些學生在學校感到不受歡迎,甚至強迫學生改變發型或另找一所學校。

美國《殘疾人教育法》要求各州和地方教育機構最大可能為殘疾學生提供免費的適當教育,所以公立學校必須為殘疾學生制定個性化的教育計劃,并提供該計劃中確定的服務和住宿。但是,當殘疾學生使用公共資助的學券上私立學校時,他們得到的特殊教育服務就會因州而異。一些州允許殘疾學生在接受學券的同時保留完整的《殘疾人教育法》權利,一些州則要求學生放棄《殘疾人教育法》中的所有權利,還有一些州介于兩者之間。

私立學校學券計劃會產生許多相關的費用、對學習的負面影響以及公立學校的公共資金消耗。然而,美國進步分析中心表示,最應該引起關注的是,接受公共資金資助的私立學校學券的額外代價可能是損害學生的基本權利。公共資金應該用于為所有公眾服務,任何接受公共投資的學校都必須保護所有學生的基本權利。在20世紀50年代和60年代,美國一些州制定了私立學校學券計劃,其目的是維持學校的隔離。雖然今天的學券計劃有不同的目標,但它們仍然可能無法保護最容易受到歧視的兒童的權利。

因此,美國進步分析中心認為,孩子們應該在他們的學習環境中受到歡迎和被接納,如果私立學校學券計劃還將存在,學校必須樂意接受所有學生,并且必須為使用學券的學生提供和公立學校學生相同的保護途徑。

(上海師范大學國際與比較教育研究院 郝丹丹)

《中國教育報》2019年05月24日第6版 

0 0 0 0
分享到:0

相關閱讀

最新發布
熱門標簽
點擊排行
熱點推薦

工信部備案號:京ICP備05071141號

互聯網新聞信息服務許可證 10120170024

中國教育新聞網版權所有,未經書面授權禁止下載使用

Copyright@2000-2019 www.zn2scc.com All Rights Reserved.

京公網安備 11010802025840號

卓易彩票 www.848777f.com | www.twcp55.com | 1106.com | www.hr499.com | 8569811c.com | www.809215.com | www.166249.com | 11112007.com | www.77455.com | ojbk188.com | www.ybao2.com | www.sky3333.com | jdfschool.com | www.673888x.com | 7003kk.com | www.5441u.com | www.40686e.com | aipin66.me | www.99552hh.com | 2127m.com | www.652623.com | www.36896.com | df8ff.com | www.9478h.com | www.16635.com | v2649.com | www.332333.cc | 3016.com | 9645nn.com | www.8889yh.com | 55bb8332.com | 2jsooo.com | www.673888j.com | 28288p.com | www.506791.com | www.0981.com | 307590.com | www.899427.com | www.sun8777.com | boyingyule.com | www.66376.com | www.3245r.com | yhzhejiang.vip | www.68993263.com | www.55002055.com | w11.vip | www.9356x.com | www.kelake77.com | 11177381.com | www.hf0866.com | www.js664.com | 2324ddd.com | www.ch8456.com | www.xj666g.com | 2226gp.com | www.568001.com | www.365055.bet | zzz8827.com | www.39500i.com | www.0091331.com | 2247ll.com | www.33598i.com | www.8905a.com | LDZ333.com | u5429.com | www.340095.com | www.10050755.com | 11c53.com | www.352477.com | www.53097777.com | www.6033w.com | 2846s.com | www.55228f.com | www.hg6556.com | 4488o.com | www.235644.com | www.40288z.com | www.xpj9199.com | hg0088.pw | www.ybao7.com | www.9737dd.me | 6176007.com | ppp8827.com | www.33997k.com | www.073343.com | heji271.com | jxddcs.com | www.ya2019s.com | www.064808.com | 2222k7.com | 15856y.com | www.2655268.com | www.98qxw.com | swin10.com | 6766uu.com | www.80075k.com | www.76775b.com | pjpj.cc | 1389qq.com | www.2373g.com | www.58118a.com | www.hg444.tv | xx67890.com | www.196051.com | www.63800.com | www.js778911.com | bwin8b.com | 30019xx.com | www.hf5880.com | www.55070n.com | www.689578.com | 6269cc.com | www.258031.com | www.954321u.com | www.xw6655.com | 500000413.com | xpj677m.com | www.603694.com | www.4809y.com | www.333133p.com | 8547s.com | www.78700e.com | www.pjzxyl.cn | www.yingle33.com | www.vns3333.cc | 3300hhgz.com | 52688p.com | www.630565.com | www.55717o.com | www.kais8.com | bwin.com | qq3405.com | 50099d.com | www.927633.com | www.a94600.com | www.302848.com | 8036gg.com | 4912e.com | hg77720.com | www.hy5155.com | www.86339k.com | www.056005.com | www.a111.cc | 3950t.com | 2934l.com | www.505162.com | www.29496c.com | www.5588kk.com | www.479898.com | www.36360.cc | 3379l.com | 9734sq.com | hg57977.com | www.607993.com | www.988046.com | www.530016.com | www.76775j.com | www.3332558.com | jsjlb5.com | 30178877.com | 313989.com | www.50051e.com | www.ck09.com | www.77114z.com | www.47506f.com | www.91293.com | www.vns8895.com | 7989j.com | mg6888.com | vv40033.com | xh00020.com | www.602470.com | www.6364k.com | www.960023.com | www.88166r.com | www.411036.com | www.76543m.com | 2934x.com | xxx01234.com | 5856sss.com | 33432o.com | 3983011.com | www.135169.com | www.978960.com | www.81233w.com | www.bjl915.com | www.o69096.com | www.1667777.com | www.feilipu4.com | www.77537j.com | www.yun900.com | 0747i.com | 50067f.com | 3522f.cc | 23599i.com | 7508p.com | 79964t.com | 1259w.com | 8030e.com | 01885p.com | www.106573.com | www.535350.com | www.939763.com | www.1368r.cc | www.9478p.com | www.77803n.com | www.500166.com | www.1434k.com | www.297555.com | www.6687j.com | www.9737hh.me | www.55545n.com | www.58665w.com | www.1234118.com | www.xn221.com | www.ok533.com | www.98333.com | www.d88md01.com | www.22447712.com | www.444171.com | www.234333.com | www.487333.com | www.hggj5551.com | www.a11133.com | www.74040.com | www.460707.com | www.bai3355.com | www.056005.com | www.vns1988.com | www.362234.com | www.pj20888.com | www.hg6929.com | www.0733fdc.net | www.5966xxx.com | www.mhcp5.com | www.4694n.com | www.xpj556677.com | www.yy17173.com | www.91779z.com | www.44118j.com | www.441918.com | www.pj99z.com | www.60123x.com | www.9478p.com | www.slyl4.com | www.897030.com | www.621431.com | www.207109.com | www.095005.com | 79889x.com | 4809b.com | 4066ss.com | 039da.com | yl6896.com | 2613e.com | 500000598.com | www.hg444.tw | www.pj5904.com | www.3534y.com | www.hf3138.com | www.huayi660.com | www.6678566.com | www.21202b.com | www.905866.com | www.132031.com | 51335m.com | 1413.com | 40033tt.com | zhcp51.com | www.xpj3398.com | www.4449.cc | www.c72.com | www.9187y.com | www.61233m.com | www.915696.com | www.001865.com | 7811xx.com | 69443399.com | 2019k.cc | www.4625v.com | www.20976.com | www.71071g.com | www.686727.com | www.2934q.com | www.444627.com | 56033.net | 2820z.com | 3825.com | www.362868.com | www.77731.com | www.4440yl.com | www.9356f.com | www.136305.com | 563930.com | 04666s.com | ee360360.cn | www.ylg122.com | www.9737ww.com | www.3978p.com | www.539126.com | 23233p.com | 550111.com | www.8520j.com | www.567100.com | www.yh234a.com | www.34788b.com | www.212632.com | 7068.com | 37570t.com | www.hg8247.com | www.q3410.com | www.9356v.com | www.83033e.com | 35222.com | 3189v.com | www.bd0088.com | www.38138o.com | www.16878x.com | 2618w.com | kkk5657.com | www.4123vv.com | www.5049x.com | www.hg6012.com | www.345597.com | 6033x.com | 99151e.com | www.hg888995.com | www.ee4625.com | www.715699.com | 6150t.com | 3258b.com | www.294294.com | www.6787758.com | www.595301.com | 10050714.com | 18775x.com | www.799666g.com | www.91233b.com | 643966.com | 78808a.com | www.h27229.com | www.357076.com | www.cp778.com | 1669o.com | pj528.com | www.804171.com | www.51515l.com | yongligao.cc | t666c.com | www.32253.com | www.7714h.com | 1331d.com | ddcp88.com | www.9k365.com | www.ejylc14.com | www.97655v.com | 3435g.com | www.ozhou9.com | www.666999qipai.com | www.178135.com | 66287i.com | www.hg5801.com | www.1434m.com | www.055890.com | qpby2299.com | www.942727.com | www.88266t.com | bet999000.com | spj81.net | www.998855y.com | www.2109p.com | 1005021.com | www.8473d.com | www.369403.com | www.374277.com | 4022ee.com | www.ccc665.com | www.55111122.com | j8381.com | 537a.cc | www.42842818.com | www.100v.cc | 4255d.com | www.4763000.vip | www.38775uu.com | www.097318.com | 459845.com | www.88399b.com | www.21202q.com | j0088.com | www.as0008.com | www.yz7704.com | 18775j.com | 0600n.cc | www.57800m.com | www.599280.com | 53262a.com | www.009789.com | www.fhfh8.com | 55kka.com | www.556644.cc | www.41855.cc | 28288pp.com | www.9679p.com | www.4648.cc | 4546114.com | www.0686000.com | www.591069.com | www.063353.com | 2543003.com | www.xpj16682.com | amxj365.com | 547563.com | www.86339w.com | ca1055.com | www.ylg343.com | www.u98478.com | 55967n.com | www.7669e.net | www.13434b.com | aa00558.com | www.900692.com | www.57578h.com | 99589e.net | www.hg8452.com | www.hcjt4.com | t21148.com | www.7779856.com | www.444081.com | 8765blr.com | www.3983119.com | 7727.com | www.668811.com | www.pujing85.com | 99999193.com | www.dafabetbogg.com | www.803242.com | yt8bet.com | www.369404.com | hg999333n.com | www.0088hg5.com | www.hjin5.com | bet33318.com | www.0600l.cc | 55331zz.com | www.lyhltj.com | www.89894b.com | www.jsth518.com | www.34788d.com | bcw1234.com | www.4196k.com | 37570z.com | www.228667.com | www.310195.com | www.h67783.com | www.07163p.com | 9649k.com | www.2566y9.com | 8742t.com | www.67df.com | e47479.com | www.8799.cc | www.138017.com | www.10899d.com | www.988068.com | 8577m.cc | www.32123s.com | ddcp88.com | www.111158.com | 4445365.com | www.8080999c.com | 11005c.com | www.88166k.com | 9464550.com | www.009789.com | 8988rr.com | www.xpj3666.com | www.61655o.com | www.pj7666.com | www.573477.com | www.365775.com | www.853199.com | www.bm10000.com | www.622by.com | 6868ii.cc | www.5441i.com | 3009x.com | www.50080d.com | t666c.com | www.80065g.com | 80850jj.com | www.66332x.com | feicai0559.com | www.50080y.com | zhcp36.com | www.5522v.cc | www.1869x.com | www.995773.com | www.112888.com | www.767200.com | www.hgcn888.com | www.506931.com | www.9908633.com | www.170792.com | www.9949c.com | 10222.com | www.9009798.com | 7894n.com | www.gg55826.com | 56988bb.com | www.742022.com | 3308.com | www.77803y.com | 2844q.com | www.c96683.com | www.yh8220.com | www.355274.com | www.3189001.com | pj7778.com | www.38345u.com | 80850h.com | www.554690.com | vic.am | www.5xag.com | www.21365xx.com | 78111100.com | www.11557.com | jing6333.com | www.13434d.com | 3648991.com | www.914903.com | www.0860z.com | pt8338.com | www.xpj5959.com | 4488vv.com | www.26163w.com | www.6177a.com | www.43131e.com | www.998855z.com | 23478.com | www.9646b.com | www.6033c.com | www.196037.com | www.810234.com | 00774ll.com | www.108011.com | 73567tg12.com | www.033918.com | www.20199xx.com | 4116s.com | www.54400z.com | www.63877d.com | a1654.com | www.783544.com | 8547j.com | www.861803.com | www.hg72999.com | 33005156.com | www.15365.com | www.76060m.com | 7945yy.com | www.369405.com | 0434355.com | www.506951.com | www.38238d.com | 4488ppp.com | www.ya619.com | www.jing6663.com | 838388h.com | www.yh76o.com | www.xhtd4455.com | 2924222.com | www.pjc88.vip | 3169v.com | www.32123i.com | www.v88134.com | 17998.cc | www.190881.com | www.e32939.com | 55797u.com | www.244747.com | www.8850w6.com | 765905.com | www.276081.com | www.xpj2040.com | 883399u.com | 2019t.cc | www.slyl5.com | www.861000.com | 4165q.com | www.hy6937.com | www.hg8141.com | 3662k.com | www.607325.com | www.38345m.com | 55uu8332.com | bet2018365.com | www.532327931.com | www.6868xj.com | 9420z.com | www.300365.com | www.25288a.com | 50038q.com | www.cb6588.com | www.c44ii.com | g99345.am | 2595e.com | www.3691x.com | www.995d.net | 4323s.com | www.917233.com | www.caipiao88a.com | 2381jjj.com | 4195599.com | www.16065f.com | www.hg4748.com | k14666.com | www.530477.com | www.4196v.com | www.0077hg.com | 5168cc.cc | www.lczg9.com | www.661613.com | 2373m.com | 00oo8331.com | www.50080r.com | www.200228.com | 16616699.com | zis.com | www.60007s.com | www.4329.com | 2776d.com | 00778m.com | www.9356h.com | www.751cp33.com | gg32355.com | 0698b.com | www.c6167.com | www.293988.com | www.38200a.com | 3778802.com | www.338073.com | www.u94600.com | www.ubo3388.com | 7806.com | xin888e.com | www.5854r.cc | www.9737vv.me | www.vns6166.com | 0446b.com | www.90305e.com | www.3zq02.com | www.6778msc.com | am2983.com | 22222007.com | www.346077.com | www.pj888j.com | www.4632.com | 131aa.net | 11683377.com | www.257660.com | www.8582ee.com | www.996sun.com | 88033.com | 0683e.com | 29918ff.com | www.35155y.com | www.7415cc.com | www.7380pp.com | 33318o.com | s83377.com | www.764918.com | www.1434h.com | www.87669.com | 21866n.com | 30171177.com | 1168l.com | www.2632m.com | www.pjgw66.com | www.7811b.com | 8036h.com | 92266z.com | dafa888.com | www.11cmc.com | www.99552.com | www.4394b.com | 4638899.com | 992222m.com | 3225h.com | www.540477.com | www.ky1006.com | www.sb5502.com | www.443709.com | 3078z.com | 3559llll.com | 4123.com | www.268221.com | www.16878g.com | www.820057.com | www.159kj.com | www.df997.com | 1591vip.com | z1915.com | 8333.org | www.838669.com | www.725609.com | www.00772o.com | www.896hg.com | www.xhtd03.com | vip56787.com | 98345aa.com | 50000885.com | www.177741.com | www.055x.cc | www.hg77730.com | www.1111yh.vip | www.387345.com | 2381vvv.com | 80878s.com | 496jj.com | xpj66888.com | www.669308.com | www.34788m.com | www.851895.com | www.7415l.com | www.501333.com | www.3459m.com | 50027799.com | jk080.com | 13806.com | 9030i.com | xpj377c.com | www.369062.com | www.hf6660.com | www.66653w.com | www.4520066.com | www.y80288.com | www.e948e.com | www.330007.com | www.8882558.com | www.3983139.com | 923960.com | 61322299.com | 86226d.com | 9411qqq.com | 3331pay.com | pic.caibw1.com | www.160913.com | www.657320.com | www.hx6686.com | www.12656.cc | www.6653d.com | www.h6620.com | www.js89o.vip | www.9961331.com | www.924971.com | www.hg2286.com | www.84786.com | www.120550.com | www.55268tt.com | www.an6988.com | www.hg22768.com | 15a4.net | 48330M.com | 2506g.com | 2864x.com | dzhcp4.com | w88u65.com | 3522s.vip | 24007.com | 5002nnn.com | a98c.com | v3405.com | tzvip2021.com | 4018nn.com | 20779955.com | cais777.com | 57157.com | gg7742.com | y68bb.com | 11gg8331.com | js11213.com | 8381s.com | hg91778.com | kk3354.com | 3434a.com | hg71710.com | www.445884215.com | www.a3a222.cc | www.vns8897.com | www.266688.com | www.8694h.com | www.888255.com | www.pj5767.com | www.cjycp55.com | www.805kj.com | www.683556.com | www.hg2286.com | www.56655p.com | www.jz30280.com | www.4996hl.com | www.73990d.com | www.v94600.com | www.2418j.com | www.84499f.com | www.6661e.cc | www.929115.com | www.508433.com | www.026918.com | 123456vv.cc | 888898.cc | 6766ww.com | 30019aa.com | 25288q.com | 44zz8331.com | www.85770u.com | www.w61654.com | www.225430.com | www.7agcpw.com | www.55060g.com | www.4102e.com | www.pj56e.com | www.5522z.cc | www.675120.com | www.101220.com | ab55.com | 2214qq.com | 2324kkk.com | wfcp666777.com | www.hg9093.com | www.pj1098.com | www.939168.com | www.44vn777.com | www.159957.com | www.60108y.com | www.849798.com | www.50052i.com | 1592w.com | 73730524.com | 62222g.com | www.4759pp.com | www.5320jjj.com | www.a526688.com | www.877579.com | www.98528f.com | www.897743.com | t365.com | 3650690.com | 5080.cc | 7775144.com | www.4270pp.com | www.423550.com | www.7920j.com | www.8667z.com | www.375769.com | 284123.com | 4340g.com | 11885156.com | www.838383.com | www.xy048.com | www.1237777.cc | www.hx6600.com | qjdc111.com | hay9256.com | 44332007.com | www.p30226.com | www.998855g.com | www.7350.vip | www.zfcp6.com | 31325.com | bet365.com | g35151.com | www.pj21399.com | www.7415mm.com | www.85144.com | www.wcp777888.com | 123456.cc | 760hd.vip | www.333222d.com | www.ylg3456.com | www.087n.com | www.996963.com | 55559193.com | 3568t.com | www.1112xj.com | www.ylc366.com | www.42456666.com | www.820289.com | hg999333q.com | 80850tt.com | www.4107g.com | www.0669777.com | www.83993m.com | www.292726.com | 5647t.com | feicai010.com | www.hg6880.com | www.ba504.com | www.976921.com | 2978qp.com | 28288k.com | www.0099ooo.com | www.294218.com | www.hy6932.com | 5622f.com | csc998.com | www.xb0010.com | www.62979d.com | www.989569.com | 58802s.com | o47479.com | www.872879.com | www.7758.com | www.330892.com | 1145.com | www.pj90666.com | www.c526688.com | www.39500q.com | 6220dd.com | 61326666.com | www.61515g.com | www.4102h.com | www.652251.com | amhg033.com | www.vns0100.com | www.16008.com | www.61411.cc | wfcp333222.com | 16616699.com | www.pj98914.com | www.ky1007.com | 105boo.com | 01885k.com | www.166459.com | www.9606.tw | 336611.com | 33882007.com | www.153msc.com | www.ylylc09.com | 29918qq.com | 52599b.com | www.828798.com | www.182323.com | 11170011.com | 55331oo.com | www.9999xx.com | www.33112r.com | 1665n.com | pj666677.com | www.jz298.com | www.997345.com | pjxinjiang.com | www.3657a.com | www.634505.com | www.444071.com | 8h888.com | www.xhf5555.com | www.07163u.com | 27878nn.com | c51ki64.com | www.jz5777.com | www.861944.com | 3678uu.com | www.cai73cc.com | www.732158.com | 83378v.com | 256777m.com | www.57800k.com | www.541638.com | 435797.com | www.87669.com | www.7782b.com | bbb67890.com | www.h7788o.com | www.6889772.com | qcloud.com | x48o.com | www.wns123k.com | qq365x.com | 3178x.com | www.b35uu.com | www.314770.com | 8381c.com | www.99393.com | www.588088.com | 8037ll.com | www.gd35155.com | www.673519.com | 7240s.com | www.hyl8.com | www.629021.com | bwin8m.com | www.c32.net | www.444537.com | 68228x.com | www.00773y.com | www.097968.com | 8905u.com | www.466909.com | 79964c.com | 32424j.com | www.9187.com | 3467t.com | www.am0674.com | www.8d828.com | js16858.com | www.yxinct.com | www.777hy.cc | 5350com.com | www.85857k.com | www.351376.com | 9995b.cc | www.93919.com | dl2883.com | www.77537m.com | www.22010.cc | 3846y.com | www.138cpn.com | www.233104.com | 0600p.cc | www.zzyl60.com | ben6.com | www.xh538.com | www.627012.com | 88949777.com | www.775398.com | 123818.xxx | www.40818f.com | www.11081.cc | 7340111.com | www.00773e.com | 69448833.com | www.44488806.com | www.08588y.com | 54248800.com | www.88166w.com | 667766e.com | www.809990.com | www.4189d.com | 1407.am | www.444jyh.com | 44225156.com | www.032007.com | www.983003.com | 7508a.com | www.3318.cc | 3122bcom | www.cp67776.com | 2096g.com | www.p30226.com | www.c4525.com | 33115i.com | www.410067.com | 717check.com | www.4212r.com | 365499.bet | www.10050939.com | www.722571.com | jc3122.com | www.07163o.com | 36407766.com | www.516297.com | rr474.com | www.397888b.com | 138763.com | www.0860g.com | www.760320.com | 3016kkk.com | www.50024w.com | 11tt8332.com | www.55676e.com | ddh5154.com | www.v88139.com | biying920vip.com | www.0477msc.com | pj13339.com | www.xpj775.com | www.022197.com | www.r8867.com | www.542998.com |