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美國私立學校學券制度有效促進公平了嗎

發布時間:2019-05-24 作者:郝丹丹 來源:中國教育報

美國教育部部長貝特西·德沃斯(Betsy DeVos)近年來一直在推動一個由美國聯邦政府資助的私立學校學券項目。目前,美國已有29個州施行該項目,通過直接支付學費或以稅收來抵免學費,為學生上私立學校提供支持。但是,最近相關評估顯示,這些計劃在提高教育質量方面并不十分有效,使用學券的學生成績沒有提高或下降。

美國進步分析中心發現,學券計劃在美國許多農村地區并非一個可行方案,因為這些計劃可能會使已經擁有較低學校密度的社區資金緊張,公共資金應用于確保所有學生都能接受高質量的公共教育,但私立學校學券計劃卻將資金從公立學校轉移。

美國進步分析中心表示,當學生參加私立學校學券計劃時,他們可能會喪失一些公立學校的權利。私立學校可能會以一些歧視的方式來對待學生,甚至勒令學生退學。

1964年美國《民權法案》第六條禁止任何接受聯邦資金的學校因“種族、膚色或國籍”而歧視學生,這有效約束了明確種族歧視的私立學校。但是,也有一些政策和規則可能看似種族中立,但仍然具有針對特定學生群體實施的效果。著裝或發型上的限制會使某些學生在學校感到不受歡迎,甚至強迫學生改變發型或另找一所學校。

美國《殘疾人教育法》要求各州和地方教育機構最大可能為殘疾學生提供免費的適當教育,所以公立學校必須為殘疾學生制定個性化的教育計劃,并提供該計劃中確定的服務和住宿。但是,當殘疾學生使用公共資助的學券上私立學校時,他們得到的特殊教育服務就會因州而異。一些州允許殘疾學生在接受學券的同時保留完整的《殘疾人教育法》權利,一些州則要求學生放棄《殘疾人教育法》中的所有權利,還有一些州介于兩者之間。

私立學校學券計劃會產生許多相關的費用、對學習的負面影響以及公立學校的公共資金消耗。然而,美國進步分析中心表示,最應該引起關注的是,接受公共資金資助的私立學校學券的額外代價可能是損害學生的基本權利。公共資金應該用于為所有公眾服務,任何接受公共投資的學校都必須保護所有學生的基本權利。在20世紀50年代和60年代,美國一些州制定了私立學校學券計劃,其目的是維持學校的隔離。雖然今天的學券計劃有不同的目標,但它們仍然可能無法保護最容易受到歧視的兒童的權利。

因此,美國進步分析中心認為,孩子們應該在他們的學習環境中受到歡迎和被接納,如果私立學校學券計劃還將存在,學校必須樂意接受所有學生,并且必須為使用學券的學生提供和公立學校學生相同的保護途徑。

(上海師范大學國際與比較教育研究院 郝丹丹)

《中國教育報》2019年05月24日第6版 

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