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看見鄉村家校合作的可能性

發布時間:2019-05-23 作者:李家成 來源:中國教育報

家校合作勢在必行,但有難度。這不僅因為政策體系處于逐步建立階段,教師缺乏開展家校合作的各類準備,學校和家庭都在相互適應,而且在于這項工作本身的復雜性。鄉村家校合作尤其如此。

但不能將復雜性等同于困難,因為復雜性本身蘊藏著內在的力量和生長的可能。

首先,復雜性會尊重多樣性。當前不乏簡單化理解家校合作工作的學者與實踐者,如過度批評和指責家長,僅將教師定位為付出者、指導者的角色,不管不問學生的需要等。對鄉村家校合作的流行觀點是:鄉村的家長都是不支持、不配合的,鄉村家長是缺位的,鄉村的老人們都是只管吃穿、不管也不會教育的,鄉村的教師面對家長都是束手無策的……這類表達,已將復雜問題簡單化。

尊重復雜性,需要理解鄉村家長、學生、教師的多樣性。就鄉村學生的家庭結構與生活狀態而言,有父母不在身邊的留守兒童,也有雙親都陪伴在身邊的孩子,也還有寄養在他人家中的孩子;鄉村家校關系類型是多樣的,甚至隔代教育中的老人,有的也能與教師建立良好合作關系;家校合作的發展狀態也是多樣的,有發展狀態很糟糕的鄉村學生和家長,也會有發展狀態很好的。鄉村教師何嘗不是如此?總之,沒有對多樣性的理解,就容易將現狀、問題單一化,簡單化思維就會阻隔家校合作實踐的力量生成。

其次,復雜性會關注動態生成性。鄉村家校合作不可能一天之內就達到完美狀態,需要一點點突破、一天天積累、一件件實現。從孩子入學前的準備,到第一次家校溝通、第一次富有專業性的互動、第一個家長領導下活動的誕生、第一個學生領導下家校合作項目的實現,從校內到校外、從家庭到社區、從單一項目到綜合項目的發展,都是一個動態的過程。

自然,這個動態過程中會有意外甚至挫折、會有錯位甚至沖突,但因為事關每位參與者的發展、每位主體的利益,因此所有主體都有合作的價值追求。其中,教師作為專業人員,需要通過差異性來促成家長的相互影響,通過培養孩子成為家校合作的領導者,需要在具體的實踐中理解資源、把握契機、促進生成,讓家校合作一天天好起來。

再其次,復雜性會突出各種可能性。正如法國思想家莫蘭所說:“重要的是不要做一個平常意義上的現實主義者(使自己適應直接的現實),也不要做一個平常意義上的非現實主義者(使自己逃避現實的約束),重要的是做一個復雜意義上的現實主義者:認識到現實的不確定性,知道在現實中存在著看不見的可能性。”建立良好的鄉村家校合作共育體系的可能性來自鄉村的學生、家長、教師,任何一方都可以促成家校合作實踐的發生,促成合作的力量。

“可憐天下父母心”,即便遠在外地打工的鄉村家長,也都期待孩子健康成長,愿意參與到與教師的合作中。即使他們有著各種困難和問題,但教育工作者和研究者千萬不要懷疑他們參與的意愿,而要為他們創造更多的合作機會。鄉村學生也需要并能夠表達自己的需求,能夠自己策劃、組織、開展校內外活動并邀請家長、教師參與其中,更能通過評價、交往而促進家長和教師的改變。家長和教師要學會傾聽孩子的聲音,尊重孩子的成長需要,接納學生對家校合作實踐的真正參與。鄉村教師作為專業人員,要承擔起家校合作領導者的責任,成為推動、建設、發展、修復家校合作關系的關鍵人。我們在黑龍江、新疆、河南、安徽、廣東等地開展的各類研究,不斷在驗證這一觀點。

當然,看見鄉村家校合作復雜性背后的可能性,需要保持生態意識,重視來自外部生態的力量。當前無論是國家還是基層,無論是教育系統還是文化系統,都在大力倡導家校合作、強調學習型社會建設。時代需要并將造就新的家校合作形態,鄉村家校合作本應是其中的有機構成。

構建互聯互通、互學互鑒的鄉村家校合作命運共同體,可以在三個方面著力:

以互聯互通的思維,真正建立多主體的聯系與互動關系。家校合作的本質是“合作”,是主體為了共同利益而實現的行為、思維和價值取向等方面的相互協調,需要主體間真實地建立聯系,相互間傾聽、對話、協商、共事,在共同的情境中共同學習、相互學習。其中,處于弱勢地位的部分家長和往往被忽視的學生,需要重新獲得主體地位。這樣的互聯互通,不僅可以發生在課堂、班級、校園、家庭、社區中,也可以發生在富有專業性的教研活動中,還可以借助互聯網形成跨時空的聯系。這對于鄉村教育尤其必要。

以互學互鑒的方式真正實現合作學習,促成主體的發展。家校合作不僅為了孩子,同樣也為了家長和教師。互鑒互學思維倡導每個主體都是學習者,都需要在交往和實踐中不斷實現自我更新。鄉村家長、鄉村教師尤其迫切需要在真實的互聯互通中,通過不斷的自覺提升學習品質。

不斷增強命運共同體意識,促成多主體對合作價值的體悟與確認。鄉村家校合作的質量提升,事關人的發展,事關鄉村教育、鄉村社區的發展,應當融入鄉村振興、城鄉一體化發展戰略中。增強命運共同體意識,能使教育實踐與研究者更有使命感,更能體驗投入其中的創造性,成就自己和他人的美好生活。

(作者系上海終身教育研究院執行副院長、博士生導師)

《中國教育報》2019年05月23日第9版 

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