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美國開放資源減輕學生教科書負擔

發布時間:2019-05-17 作者:蔣毅瑩 來源:中國教育報

美國大學教科書費用昂貴的問題由來已久。根據美國勞工統計局的調查統計。在2006年至2016 年的10年間,美國大學學費上升了63%,宿舍費上升了50%,而教科書費用上升了88%,某些科目的教科書漲價幅度甚至遠超醫療保健費用和住房。

2014年的一項關于美國消費者的研究發現,65%的學生因為教科書太貴,決定抵制用書,因而可能導致他們延遲畢業。2018年7月30日發布的美國聯邦登記公告也顯示,2016至2017學年,兩年制學校大學生平均每年的圖書預算已經上升到每年1458美元,四年制學校大學生的圖書預算也已上升到每年1263美元。教科書費用昂貴是美國大學生面臨與承受的一項重要經濟負擔。

近年來,美國教育部為阻止大學教科書成本上漲,采取了一系列政策與措施。其中,“開放式教科書試點計劃”(The Open Textbooks Pilot Program)即為措施之一。該計劃針對高等教育學校進行,在保持并改善教育教學效果的基礎上通過研發開放式教科書或擴大使用開放式教科書,最大限度地為大學生節省成本。研發出來的開放式教科書屬于公共財產,允許大眾免費使用、修改并與他人共享。

近期,美國國會與教育部再一次聚焦“開放式教科書計劃”。美國教育部向加州大學戴維斯分校提供了490萬美元的贈款,用來資助該校領導的一系列針對特定學科開發免費開放式教科書的試點項目。這也是美國國會2018年度財政綜合支出法案中有關“開放式教科書試點計劃”的一部分。該計劃顯示,加州大學戴維斯分校將領導一個由12個校區組成的聯合體,重點研發那些入學率高的技術課程的開放式教科書,如化學和職業技術教育等,這類書籍必須經常跟隨時代技術的變化更新版本,因此也成為學生必須購買的昂貴的教科書之一。

獲得資助的加州大學戴維斯分校計劃通過擴展開放式教科書服務,旨在團結學生、教師和教育研究者,共同開發一個易于使用的在線平臺“LibreTexts”,用于建設、定制和傳播開放教育資源,以減少不合理的教科書成本對學生和社會的負擔,改善高等教育現狀。

根據撥款申請,高入學率的化學領域將成為“LibreText”圖書館擴展中首要考慮的重點學科,而該領域的開放式教科書也將使美國化學學會“零教科書成本”的期望成為可能。除此之外,職業技術教育領域也將開放一個新的在線圖書館為其服務。

美國教育部長貝齊·德沃斯(Betsy DeVos)表示:“過去10年,大學教材的成本幾乎翻了一番。對于那些想上大學或學習貿易的學生來說,‘開放式教科書計劃’是他們減少障礙、擴大入學機會和增加入學選擇的重要一步。我很高興這個項目在國會獲得通過,同時我也很期待通過大家的共同努力,學生、教師和公眾能夠更加容易獲得教科書。”

除了加州大學戴維斯分校,獲得教科書試點項目的聯合體還包括阿肯色大學、圣瑪麗學院、喬治王子社區學院和希望學院等一系列院校。其實,加州大學戴維斯分校不是首次使用開放式教科書的學校。2017年,馬里蘭大學就把21項補助金分發給了7個社區大學和5個公立的四年制大學,并表示這些補助金將會分發給那些“愿意采納并使用開放教育資源”的教職員工。

美國比爾和梅琳達·蓋茨基金會也曾捐贈1000萬美元支持13個州38所社區大學的學生使用開放教育資源,并幫助他們取得學位。而在開放教育資源上最領先的是麻省理工學院,2001年就已開始推行這一做法,把麻省理工學院的上課資源免費分享給公眾,其中包括課堂影片、講義、作業以及實驗等資源。至今,美國也已有幾十所大學依靠公開授權教材向大眾提供免費課程。

(作者單位:上海師范大學教育學院)

《中國教育報》2019年05月17日第6版 

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