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近日發布的《2019中國留學白皮書》顯示——

低齡留學與研究深造呈雙增長

發布時間:2019-05-17 作者:本報記者 黃蔚 來源:中國教育報

5月7日,新東方《2019中國留學白皮書》(以下簡稱“白皮書”)北京正式發布,對留學行業現狀與未來趨勢進行了分析解讀。據悉,今年是新東方《中國留學白皮書》連續發布的第5年,由新東方前途出國聯合新東方留學考試、新東方歐亞教育、斯芬克國際藝術教育和支付公司Visa等共同發布。

白皮書的調查數據來自今年1—2月的線上及線下問卷調研,覆蓋全國30多個省級行政區域和部分海外國家及地區。樣本涵蓋了有留學意向的學生和家長、已有留學經驗的人群以及參與單位招聘的社會人士三大主要群體,共回收有效樣本6228份。

據介紹,本次調查專注于中國留學群體的特征及變化,通過5年的數據積累與對比分析,梳理出了當前中國留學人群及家庭對于留學心態、選擇、規劃、困惑以及相應的發展變化,呈現出各個國家、各個階段留學的具體特征與趨勢。白皮書顯示,在低齡留學日趨普遍的同時,面對就業競爭,研究生階段的留學人數增速同樣明顯。

更多普通家庭孩子選擇出國

根據教育部最新數據,2018年度我國出國留學人員總數達到66.21萬人,相比前一年增長8.83%,經濟全球化浪潮下,出國留學人數仍在持續增長。

該調查對比了5年來意向留學人群父母的職位背景。其中,“一般員工”的比例逐年上升,成為今年占比最高的群體,占比43%;而5年前占比最高的群體則是“中層領導”,占比48%;“高管群體”5年來占比相對趨于穩定。

白皮書分析,除了綜合國力的提升,家長對孩子的教育重視程度提高、國內就業競爭的壓力增大等原因,也使得很多家庭產生了留學的意向。此外,世界各國的經濟文化融合、國際教育資源的開放、國內教育服務行業的發展等多種因素,為中國學生提供了更加多元的留學選擇,也為更多普通家庭的孩子創造了出國的條件。

此外,該調查發現,學生教育背景更加多樣化。在本科及以上的意向留學人群中,來自國內普通高校和國內民辦高校或三本高校的群體增長明顯,兩者之和占比達59%,較5年前增長7%。

在中小學意向留學人群中,目前就讀于私立學校國際班、國際學校的群體持續上升;但就讀于公立或民辦學校普通班的學生群體留學意向依然堅挺。

通過5年數據對比,該調查發現,攻讀碩士仍是主體,且意向持續增強。意向留學人群始終以就讀本科及以上的人群占比為主,5年來始終超過七成,且仍呈上升趨勢。

此外,調查還發現,更多群體計劃出國就讀到碩士階段,從2016年的57%增長到今年的70%,占比連年上升。而在對已有留學經驗人群的調研中,就讀到碩士及以上人群占比則為50%。白皮書分析,數據背后同樣反映了意向留學人群通過更高學歷來緩沖就業壓力的心態。

目的地國家選擇持續多元化

白皮書分析,通過多年的數據積累與對比可見,大家對留學價值的認識也有變化。為追求自我提升、拓展視野而留學的人群在增多,為移民等原因留學的人群比例則逐漸減少,更多人把留學當作一個實現自我價值的通道。而在留學準備上,國家選擇持續多元化,思考也更加完備。

首先,留學生對目的地的選擇日趨多樣化。對比5年數據,美國依然是意向留學人群最熱衷選擇的留學國家,但優勢已不再明顯,占比43%。而傾向英國的群體占比在2019年大幅上升,占比41%,有趕超美國的趨勢。與此同時,傾向選擇德國、日本的群體也逐年上升;澳大利亞、加拿大依然占據主流留學目的國的第三和第四位。

隨著留學人數上升,競爭也越來越激烈。白皮書顯示,美國中學申請中,入讀寄宿中學的學生比例由2017年的13%增至2018年的30%,原本選擇走讀中學的學生也加入了寄宿中學的競爭中;美國研究生申請人數持續上升,2015—2018年的增幅達66%;選擇面試指導、背景提升產品、海外大學暑期課程的學生占比均在上升。

從專業角度來看,學生目前的選擇傾向仍較集中。在英國、加拿大、澳大利亞等國,商科依然排在第一位;在法國、德國等歐洲小語種國家,英文授課的商科課程同樣備受追捧。白皮書分析,商科類專業對于想在研究生階段轉專業申請的本科生而言,限制較少;此外就業面較廣,申請難度相對較低也是導致其熱門的原因。

此外,調查還發現,更多學生傾向通過留學實現自我提升。對比近3年的數據,內在自我提升對意向留學人群的驅動依舊強勢,占比逐年攀升。其中,超過半數的學生希望通過留學拓寬國際視野、豐富人生經歷、學習先進知識。而外部的功利因素呈現下降趨勢。白皮書分析,隨著國內經濟的穩健發展,學生通過留學移民的想法逐漸淡化。

歸國就業呈上升趨勢

教育部最新數據顯示,我國2018年度各類留學回國人員總數為51.94萬人,與2017年數據相比增加了3.85萬人,增長了8%;留學歸國人員已成為我國人才市場備受關注的群體。

該調查對比了近5年的數據,發現選擇畢業后立刻歸國就業的人群占比呈持續上升的趨勢。白皮書分析,一方面是因為國外就業市場已趨近飽和,使得更多意向人群打算畢業后馬上回國工作;另一方面,越來越多意向留學群體留學目的本身就是為在國內就業增加競爭力。

在來自用人單位的被訪者中,89%的群體認可留學帶來的價值和意義,他們認為“開拓視野”“思維方式轉變”“鍛煉獨立自主能力”是重要的意義,此外留學對“提升專業能力”也很有幫助。而11%認為留學無意義的群體,則是將“改善收入水平”和“投入產出成本”作為首要標準。

調查還發現,和去年相比,“海歸”求職面臨的各項問題中,最為突出的缺少實踐經驗雖然仍排在首位,但比重在下降;此外在缺少信息獲取渠道和工作不對口的問題上也有緩解。與此同時,在缺乏包裝和表現自己問題上的嚴重性大幅上升;其他問題比重有小幅上升。整體來看“突出性”問題減少,問題趨向“個性化”。

該調查通過對比近兩年的數據發現,有留學經驗且已工作的被調研者對其目前工作的崗位、發展空間、職位的滿意度均有所提升。白皮書分析,由此可見,目前留學生的職業規劃以及海歸的求職技巧在不斷提升。

《中國教育報》2019年05月17日第7版 

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