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0—3歲非“讀”不可

發布時間:2019-05-16 作者:劉喜琴 來源:中國教育報

0—3歲是滋養孩子最關鍵的3年,如何從0歲開始進行閱讀啟蒙,日益成為新生代父母特別關注的教育話題。

4月18日,中國婦女出版社聯手第二書房在北京市金中都館舉行了“生命最初三年早期閱讀啟蒙”研討會,同時發布由中國婦女出版社出版、首都師范大學副教授陳苗苗和第二書房創始人李巖合著的新書《1000天閱讀效應》。與會專家一致認為,0—3歲是兒童早期閱讀能力發展的關鍵期,每天在書的陪伴下長大,會成為孩子一生取之不盡的財富。

用閱讀的乳汁滋養早期家庭教育

兒童文學博士陳苗苗是兩個孩子的媽媽,在育兒實踐中積累了豐富的親子閱讀經驗。她發現游戲書有敲門磚的作用,對寶寶觀察力、注意力的發展有非常好的促進作用。

陳苗苗在會上提到的“赫克曼曲線”,是2000年諾貝爾經濟學獎獲得者、美國芝加哥大學教授詹姆斯·赫克曼依據長達40年的“佩里學前教育項目”提出的。這條曲線表明,對早期教育投資的回報高過任何時期的教育。

成人與幼兒語言交流中的諸多因素,如語匯的使用量,語言使用的多樣性,成人的語言表達方式以及語法、語調、韻律、語句的完整性,都會直接影響幼兒語言和認知能力的發展,抓住有利時機進行適當地培養,就會收到事半功倍的效果。中國婦女出版社李凱聲社長倡議有更多的“書香飄萬家”家庭親子閱讀活動,傳遞科學家教理念,引導社會關注早期閱讀啟蒙,引領親子閱讀新風尚。

據陳苗苗介紹,美國0—3歲閱讀教育目標的口號是“生而閱讀,絕非太早”;英國發起了世界上第一個專為0—3歲嬰幼兒提供閱讀指導服務的國家級計劃“閱讀起跑線”項目;德國從2006年起在薩克森州和漢堡市試點運行“起點閱讀—閱讀的三個里程碑”項目,在孩子1歲、3歲和6歲時發放閱讀禮包及家長指導手冊。芬蘭寶寶從0歲開始讀詩歌,如果寶寶又撕又咬把書弄壞了,不用賠償,會有專業人員來維修。新加坡政府提出了“天生讀書種,讀書天倫樂”,也收到了可喜的成果。

“出生即閱讀”可以提高孩子的語言輸入和輸出能力,對未來學業至關重要。當孩子閱讀時,眼睛和大腦隨著文本進行非曲線運動,書中的插畫以一種類似攝像鏡頭的敘事方式發揮作用,與文本時而協調呼應、時而矛盾。陳苗苗說:“每次閱讀圖畫書的時候,在眼睛和大腦的協作下,孩子能從大量看似無效的畫面刺激中做出正確的判斷和意義解讀,會伴隨戲劇效果產生神奇的閱讀體驗。”

早期閱讀培養五大學習品質

0—3歲是寶寶建立學習態度的關鍵階段,培養積極的學習品質對于其后續階段的學業成功具有重要的奠基作用。

李巖對此深有體會,他的女兒從早期閱讀是獲益匪淺。他認為閱讀能培養寶寶的好奇心和主動性,讓寶寶對周圍世界的人和物表現出興趣和渴望,對新經驗和與人互動日益感興趣,能深度參與和探究新經驗;閱讀能培養寶寶解決問題的能力,使寶寶通過初步的社會互動來解決自己的需要;有助于寶寶初步探索解決問題的行為,能日益自主和獨立地去解決問題;閱讀能培養寶寶的自信心和冒險精神,幫助寶寶在與人和物的互動中逐漸建立自信,在安全的環境和氛圍中嘗試簡單的冒險行為,變得更加自信且敢于探索新環境。

李巖強調說,美國哈佛大學講座教授、國際著名的兒童語言學家凱瑟琳·斯諾領銜的研究團隊發現,美國中產階級家庭和低收入家庭的孩子在發展中產生的差異大概為33%,而其中20%的差異是由家庭親子閱讀帶來的。愛看書的寶寶認知本領強,眼界更寬,步伐更遠。

北京市婦聯副主席馬紅萍認為,培養孩子的閱讀能力,讓孩子從小愛上讀書,從某種程度上可以彌合家庭差異帶來的教育鴻溝。滿足0—3歲孩子的好奇心和探索的欲望,除了帶他們走進社會,深入大自然以外,最為可行有效的辦法,就是以書為媒介,以閱讀為紐帶,用早期閱讀的方式閱讀圖書,開闊他們的視野。

閱讀不僅能為嬰幼兒提供聽覺訓練的機會,還能提供視覺刺激和視力訓練,促進大腦發育。通過親子共讀,還為嬰幼兒提供了文學體驗和美學經驗,讓他們感受到文字和圖畫是如何互動和敘事的。

“親子共讀既是閱讀訓練,也是情感交流。”中國國家圖書館少兒館館長王志庚滿懷深情地說道:“當我們用充滿感情的語調給寶寶讀書時,他能體會到美和快樂的滋味。寶寶在我們溫暖的懷里一邊欣賞書,一邊傾聽我們妙趣橫生的講解,這是一種積極的情感交流,對寶寶的心理、生理成長來說是一個很大的推動力。寶寶能夠感受到被關注、重視、接納和了解,那種愜意是其他玩具很難代替的,可以把親子關系建立得更加緊密牢固。”王志庚認為,孩子坐在家長的懷里,手上翻著書,看著書中的畫面,聽著家長的聲音,這是不可替代且意義深遠的“陪伴”,喜怒哀樂等細膩的情感在他們幼小的心中開始萌芽。

一位博士媽媽激動地說女兒在日記中自豪地寫道:“你或許擁有無限的財富、一箱箱的珠寶和一柜柜的黃金,但是你永遠不會比我富有,我有讀書給我聽的媽媽。”

早期閱讀也存在“馬太效應”

“閱讀馬太效應”是認知科學家斯坦諾維奇總結大量研究后提出來的,用來形容孩子讀書越讀越愛讀、越讀越會讀,反之越不讀越不愛讀、越不讀越不會讀的現象。

閱讀和認知力相輔相成,孩子越讀,理解能力越強,越愛思考,越讀越有成就感,從而形成良性循環。同時,孩子越對閱讀有畏難情緒,越不愿意主動走入閱讀環境,文字越缺少刺激孩子大腦發展的機會,孩子閱讀本領越難以提高,從而慢慢形成負向循環。

陳苗苗特別提出,養成書香寶寶有助于預防閱讀困難。為幫寶寶從親子共讀順利過渡到自主閱讀階段,父母需要花費一些心思,重新布局家里的書架,按照每頁的文字量把書重新排序,鼓勵寶寶先從只有一行文字的書讀起。父母要持之以恒地為寶寶讀書,提供一個書香環境,讓適合他的各種讀物隨處可見、隨手可摸到。

李巖認為,早期閱讀的價值,不在于孩子對所讀圖書理解得多么深刻,而在于通過閱讀感知事物的表面現象和外部聯系,體驗、感受、豐富感性知識,為將來認識事物的本質規律和內部聯系、學習理性知識奠定堅實的基礎。孩子一旦對圖書產生了興趣,就會欲罷不能、欲罷不忍。

陳苗苗補充說,家長要盡可能選擇有趣的、有吸引力的,適合孩子年齡特征的圖書,使孩子保持高度的注意力,從而為孩子的學校教育奠定基礎。如果寶寶能每天跟書玩下去,能在書的陪伴下一天天長大,那么他的閱讀廣度、深度就會與日俱增。父母會看到“閱讀馬太效應”正向效應體現在自家寶寶身上。

北京市順義區勝利街道建新南區第一社區,把“1000天閱讀效應”的配套親子課程,以年度系列課程的形式送給社區2—3歲幼兒的居民家庭,社區小寶寶們在課程上的表現讓家長們大呼“出人意料”,2歲的幼兒用彩筆畫出了自己肚子里有大窟窿的樣子,還描述說這是“肚子爆炸啦”。

書是玩具,書是世界,書是嬰幼兒最好的朋友。閱讀是探索,閱讀是游戲,閱讀讓嬰幼兒的發展更神奇。愿每個0—3歲的寶寶,都能暢飲童書的“乳汁”,因閱讀而創造美好豐盛的人生。

(作者系本報特約編輯)

《中國教育報》2019年05月16日第10版 

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