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世界銀行建議貧困生資助更加精準

發布時間:2019-05-10 作者:白宇 來源:中國教育報

世界銀行近日發布了《降低高等教育不公平的因素:關于外延政策和財政資助準實驗研究的系統文獻回顧》。報告顯示,大學畢業仍然是擺脫貧困的最佳途徑之一,高等教育的回報高于任何其他教育的回報,尤其是在低收入國家。女性的回報率往往高于男性,貧困家庭的孩子從高等教育中獲益最多。因此,對于政策制定者來說,如何支持來自貧困家庭的孩子接受高等教育,以及如何幫助他們成功畢業是至關重要的。

有大量文獻分析旨在支持弱勢學生接受高等教育的干預措施和政策。該報告嚴格選擇、收集并比較了全球此類干預措施的200多項因果預測,并從中得到了四點啟示:

第一,弱勢學生在高等教育中的代表性不足是由多種機制造成的。貧困學生由于經濟不足、缺乏學業準備、缺乏相關信息、認知偏見等導致其遠離大學教育。因此,確定導致弱勢學生代表性不足的機制非常重要。

第二,決策者應考慮實施更多的外延政策。研究發現,當外延政策包括積極的咨詢或簡化大學申請程序,而不只是提供有關高等教育的一般信息時,在增加弱勢學生入學機會方面具有廣泛的有效性。

第三,政策制定者應該更有效地利用財政援助。研究發現,在高等教育領域,針對大學生的財政資助形式內容多種多樣,但并非所有的資助都能達到預期效果。以需求為基礎的大規模援助在幫助學生進入大學并成功畢業方面發揮了持續作用。同時,研究表明,更早地對學生進行財政資助(如在高中階段給予資助)可以有效地提升大學入學率。因此,在設計財政援助計劃時,應考慮財政資助的具體干預時段。

第四,研究人員應更多關注發展中國家。現在有許多高質量的研究可用,而且關于這個主題的可用實驗證據正在迅速增加。但令人吃驚的是,其中只發現了5項來自中低收入國家的研究。因此,研究人員應該更多關注發展中國家。

(白宇)

《中國教育報》2019年05月10日第5版 

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