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從欺凌到犯罪僅一步之遙

發布時間:2019-05-02 作者:宗春山 來源:中國教育報

校園欺凌事件結束后,受欺凌者仍舊長期生活在暴力的陰影下,心理創傷難以愈合,甚至會影響其一生的性格發展和身心健康。而欺凌者則在欺凌他人的過程中體驗到強烈的憤怒、羞愧、罪惡感,這類孩子有很高的抑郁、焦慮情緒障礙及自殺風險,長大后參與暴力事件、酗酒、吸毒及犯罪行為的風險也很高。

一旦被欺凌,三觀全改變。就像一位校園欺凌的受害者所說,受欺凌的經歷就像心底深藏了一座切爾諾貝利,一不小心打開,傷害就如同摧枯拉朽的核事故,沉重而又深遠。

受欺凌者一般性格較內向而對外界刺激又過于敏感,遭受羞辱又無力反抗時,受欺凌者的自我認知會特別消極,自尊較低,缺乏自信,極易產生對現實世界的不信任,影響社會交往能力,甚至會讓他們產生輕生、自殺傾向。受欺凌者常被抑郁、焦慮等不良情緒所困擾,有的還會出現生理反應,如頭痛、胃痛、失眠、噩夢等,“活在一次次自我撕裂、一次次自我重組的絕望中”。

除了心理健康水平受到影響,受欺凌者還會出現暴力傷害的投射反應,出現曠課逃學、打架斗毆、欺負弱小、考試作弊、沉迷網吧游戲廳等違紀和越軌行為,甚至反過來去欺凌其他弱小的同學。

2014年,英國國家兒童發展機構的研究者通過對7771名遭受過欺凌的孩子長達50年的追蹤發現,那些經常被欺負的孩子在45歲時會有更大的抑郁、焦慮和自殺風險。這一研究證明欺凌行為對孩子的傷害不僅嚴重,而且很可能會持續孩子的一生,時間都無法撫平傷痛。

受欺凌者最明顯的表現就是學習成績斷崖式下跌。孩子情緒很難放松,難以集中注意力學習,或者每天都處于緊張的回避、逃避、躲避狀態,會缺課、逃學、厭學甚至輟學。有些青少年棄學流向社會,心理不穩定,生理不成熟,自身能力有限,容易感情用事,極易受外界環境的影響,又沒有穩定的收入來源,對未來沒有規劃,一旦受到不良社會因素的誘惑,極易走上違法犯罪的道路。

很多孩子在欺凌別人的過程中喪失了自我,他們暴力手段越來越殘忍,由“稱霸”校園變成一方“惡少”;由侮辱、欺負、打罵弱小同學的輕微違法行為,演變成犯罪,甚至干起慘無人道的強奸及殺人越貨的勾當。由于年齡原因,很多孩子實施校園欺凌卻不會受到懲罰,這容易使他們形成“藐視法律”的心態,暴力行為越來越肆無忌憚。

校園欺凌的傷害還會波及旁觀者。當欺凌屢屢發生時,學校不再有比學習、比智慧的團結氣氛,而被比拳頭、比地位的惡霸氛圍占了上風。在這樣的氛圍中,膽小的孩子擔心欺凌者把自己作為目標而不敢去上學,或者上課不敢主動提問題,學習精力分散,學習效率自然下降。

有時候,受蝴蝶效應的影響,兩個孩子的沖突會演變為兩群人的對立。“學生之間發生矛盾,一方家長到學校幫娃‘出頭’,另一方家長聞訊趕來,雙方發生沖突,其中有家長被打骨折住院。”“兩名9歲男孩發生肢體沖突。十幾秒之后,小個子孩子的父親對高個子男孩拳腳相加,男孩滿臉是血。”“在處理孩子間的糾紛時,家長沖進教室幫自家孩子‘報仇’,班主任老師聞訊趕來勸阻時,他又向老師揮起了老拳。”這些新聞事件屢屢發生,引人深思。

北京市曾經對在押的未成年罪犯進行調查,95%以上的未成年罪犯存在社會公德意識淡薄、思想品質惡劣、言行偏激等特征,明顯表現出從違背社會公德到違紀違法再到走向犯罪的必然聯系,從量變到質變的行為過程非常清晰。

在這些未成年罪犯中,71.6%的人犯罪時年齡在十五六歲。這個年齡段被稱為“易發犯罪的高危年齡”,又稱“犯罪年齡”,孩子本身就比較躁動,容易失控,需要有人不斷引導他向健康方向走,更需要有人不斷阻止他滑向深淵。孩子的不良行為是他發出的呼救信號,可惜的是,這個信號常常被忽視。

校園欺凌的施暴者如果不能得到有效懲戒和教育,任其發展,成年后很可能表現為反社會性人格障礙,其特征是高度攻擊性,缺乏羞愧感,不能從經歷中吸取經驗教訓,行為受偶然動機驅使,社會適應不良等,給個人或社會都帶來不良影響。

(作者系中國教育學會中小學安全教育與安全管理專業委員會副理事長,著有《少年江湖——校園欺凌的預防和應對》)

《中國教育報》2019年05月02日第9版 

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