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勞動教育還須回歸日常生活

發布時間:2019-04-25 作者:黃建軍 來源:中國教育報

家庭是孩子終身的學校,是立德樹人的重要陣地,也是勞動教育的重要場所。教育部部長陳寶生強調,要“重點針對長期以來疏于德、弱于體和美、缺于勞的問題,換腦筋、換思路、換辦法,改環境、改途徑、改習慣,讓立德樹人回歸社會、回歸家庭、回歸生活”。沒有家庭的配合,勞動教育的鏈條是不完整的。落實勞動教育,家庭生活有著獨特而不可替代的重要作用。

喚醒家長意識,重新認識勞動的重要價值。

勞動有很多功能,可以立德,可以增智,可以強體,可以育美,對于學生的智力、身心等各方面和諧發展都有獨特的作用。

首先,勞動過程中學生要集中注意力,要細心觀察,要思考如何把事做好,要動手實踐操作,勞動的過程就是一個全面刺激學生的手、眼、腦協調發展的過程。在勞動中,學生學到一定的技能技巧,學會獨立解決問題,會看到自己的實力,能體驗到成功和價值,能感知認識世界。這就是一個增智、增能、增自信的過程。

其次,勞動還能磨煉學生的意志品質,使學生勇于克服困難、執著、堅韌,學會主動承擔責任和義務。有過勞動體驗的孩子,了解勞動的艱辛,更懂得珍惜,遇事更能替他人著想,更容易養成勤儉、節約、樸實、善良、有愛心、愛護公物等良好品質。

哈佛大學在長達20多年的跟蹤研究后,得出一個驚人的結論:愛干家務的孩子和不愛干家務的孩子,成年之后的就業率是15∶1,犯罪率是1∶10.愛干家務的孩子,離婚率低,心理疾病患病率也低。另有專家指出,家務勞動與孩子的動作技能、認知能力的發展以及責任感的培養有著密不可分的關系。

可以說,勞動教育是讓孩子擁有幸福生活能力的奠基教育,父母越舍得用孩子,孩子長大后越有擔當,越有能力去面對未來生活的一切。我們應該喚醒家長的意識,讓家長從內心認識到勞動對于孩子健康成長具有必不可少、不可替代的重要價值,重視,培養孩子良好的勞動習慣和積極的勞動態度。

引導家長反思,正視勞動缺失的家庭原因。

勞動教育曾是我國培養德智體美勞全面發展人才的重要一環,現在卻被社會嚴重忽視。在家庭中,很多孩子衣來伸手、飯來張口,自己的事情都不需要自己做。上學放學的路上,我們經常可以看到代替學生背著書包的爺爺奶奶、爸爸媽媽。學校里,也常常可以看到包攬代替學生完成學校值日打掃任務的家長。一些初高中寄宿學校,常見男女生寢室垃圾亂扔、臟衣服成堆,甚至臭氣沖鼻。大學生們把臟衣服打包快遞回家的新聞也時有報道。

出現這樣的局面,原因就在于勞動教育在家庭中被弱化、在學校中被軟化、在社會中被淡化。學生愛不愛勞動、會不會勞動不重要,考出好分數、考上好學校才是教師和學校的榮譽和功勞。這直接影響了未成年人對于勞動的價值取向。

在不少家長的心里,學習永遠放在第一位,認為有好成績才會有好前途。很多父母的口頭禪是:“你只要好好學習就行,家里什么事情都不用你做。”“孩子學的東西多,玩的時間少,怎么忍心讓他做家務呢?”“等孩子長大了,自然就會做了”……家長以“愛的名義”“學習的名義”剝奪了孩子參與勞動鍛煉的各種機會。還有的家長把勞動作為懲戒孩子犯錯的一種手段,讓孩子產生勞動不光榮的認識,甚至反感和抵觸勞動,直接導致孩子在勞動認識、勞動習慣、勞動技能、勞動情感、勞動品質等方面存在不同程度的缺失和偏差。

家校社區聯動,讓勞動教育回歸日常生活。

加強勞動教育,需要家庭、學校及全社會達成共識,形成教育合力,營造濃厚的“勞動最光榮”的社會大氛圍。政府和相關職能部門要利用社會資源建立勞動實踐基地,豐富勞動教育載體,拓展勞動教育途徑。可以利用節假日和寒暑假,倡導社區、青少年教育機構組織親子家庭,開展志愿服務、公益勞動等義工活動,讓學生經常參與體驗社區義務勞動及社會生產活動。

學校層面,需要認真開設好勞動技術課程及社會實踐活動課程,更要把勞動教育作為家校合育的重要研究課題,推動勞動教育潤物無聲地進入每一個家庭,讓勞動回歸日常、回到經常,變成中小學生的一種習慣。家長學校要開設勞動教育方面的宣講培訓,喚醒家長的示范意識,轉變家長的教育觀念,推動家長把日常生活中勞動鍛煉的機會還給孩子。

學校應經常創設一些校園勞動、社區志愿服務等鍛煉機會,定期組織一些家務勞動競賽;根據學生的年齡特點,給學生布置一些掃地、整理、洗碗、洗衣等力所能及的家務勞動作業;把勞動教育納入學生綜合素質評價,正確導向,鼓勵學生勤于勞動,熱愛勞動,持之以恒,強化家長和學生的勞動意識。

只有家庭、學校、社會都積極行動起來,堅持以家庭為主陣地將勞動教育融入孩子日常學習和生活,才能真正實現“長大后能夠辛勤勞動、誠實勞動、創造性勞動”。

(作者單位:湖南省瀏陽市教師進修學校)

《中國教育報》2019年04月25日第9版 

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