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校園安全責任重于山

發布時間:2019-03-14 來源:中國教育報

    日前,教育部長陳寶生在兩會“部長通道”上回應校園安全等問題,表達了綜合治理校園安全問題的信心和決心。

——編者

部長原聲

● 校園安全牽涉面很廣,必須多部門協調配合治理,從源頭上預防,從根本上治理,從制度上發力,從突出問題突破。

● 校園安全問題是一個綜合征,近幾年教育部、公安部等部門密切配合,對校園安全進行綜合治理。

● 進一步夯實基礎,要從綜合治理的力量基礎、技術基礎、制度基礎三個方面下功夫。

● 要配合公安部等部門一起開展“護校安園”活動,把這個活動持續抓下去,將幼兒園和學校建成安全的幼兒園和學校。 

把校園筑成安全堡壘

鐘焦平

教育部長陳寶生日前在兩會“部長通道”接受媒體采訪時表示,校園安全牽涉面很廣,必須多部門協調配合治理,從源頭上預防,從根本上治理,從制度上發力,從突出問題突破。陳寶生指出,校園安全面臨著一些新的挑戰,出現了一些新的情況,老的問題還沒解決完,新的問題又出現。要繼續對這個問題配合起來發力。

校園安全可謂牽動著幾乎每一個家庭的心。而如果你去問一位中小學校長:心頭繃得最緊的那根弦是什么?他給出的答案通常并不會是學生成績、升學率,抑或教師隊伍建設,而是安全。今年全國兩會期間,校園安全更是成為不少代表委員熱議的話題,且不局限于教育界別。有代表委員提出,除了治理校園欺凌等現象外,校園安全法律還應厘清校園責任事故的概念、內涵與外延,科學界定學校、家長及其他責任主體的責任范圍,為學校“減負”,進而杜絕各種“校鬧”行為。還有代表委員提出,檢察機關在開展法治進校園、法治副校長等活動的同時,還應將觸角延伸到家庭,通過家長引導中小學生明確法律底線、強化防范意識,從而提高應對各類校園安全問題的能力。

生命高于一切,安全重于泰山。近年來,我國校園安全狀況持續改善,廣大學生及其家長的安全感得到有力保障,為教育改革發展營造了較好的外部環境。但校園安全只有進行時,沒有完成時。成績只代表過去,問題仍須努力解決。校園安全問題絕不局限于校園圍墻之內,而是整個社會安全問題的重要組成部分,因為校園的特殊性,且校園圍墻之內多為未成年人,其社會關注度遠超一般的社會安全問題。近幾年發生的數起校園安全事故,每每成為熱點新聞,觸動著全社會的敏感神經,便是明證。

我們常把少年兒童比作祖國的花朵,那么校園便是孩子們生長的花園,但這座花園顯然不能不設防,而應把它建成一座無比堅實的堡壘。一方面,這座堡壘可以是有形的,比如校園圍墻,以及在學校周邊建設必要的隔離欄、減速帶、升降柱等安全防控設施。同時,配齊配強專兼職保安和安全管理人員,在校園周邊設立高峰勤務和“護學崗”,確保重點路段、重點時段學生安全。另一方面,這座堡壘也可以是無形的,比如進一步加強生命教育,幫助學生正確認識生命、尊重生命、珍愛生命、保護生命。同時,要加強安全應急演練,把防范交通事故、溺水、食物中毒、擁擠踩踏、校園傷害等作為重點,通過綜合演練與專項演練相結合、全校性演練與區域性演練相結合,切實提高師生應急意識和能力。

針對一些地方和學校存在的麻痹大意、玩忽職守等突出問題,有必要牢牢牽住責任落實這個“牛鼻子”,對不重視學校安全工作、不履行管理責任,造成重大安全事故或造成惡劣社會影響的,要依法依規嚴肅追究相關責任人的責任。通過真督查、嚴問責,讓壓力層層有效傳導,筑牢維護校園安全的思想防線,為把校園打造成堅實的安全堡壘奠定基石。

用法治為校園安全護航

方芳

如何治理校園安全,及時化解糾紛,保障學生、教師和學校的合法權益,成為今年兩會期間代表委員們熱議的話題,很多代表委員不約而同地提到加強校園安全立法,用法治保障校園安全。

我國目前的校園安全立法體系,確實存在缺乏專門性立法、已有立法內容滯后、效力位階不高、缺乏可操作性等問題。

對此,需要用法治來保障校園安全,通過校園安全立法來明確現實中亟須解決的關鍵問題。

一是厘清學校內部的安全管理制度和措施,為學校提供具有可操作性的法律依據。我國的侵權責任法在確定學校責任時僅用了“教育管理職責”,不夠具體明確,導致一些學校在實踐中比較困惑。很多學校不知道自己的安全工作做得是否到位。發生安全事故后,法院判決學校需要承擔責任時才后知后覺。校園安全立法應將學校的教育管理職責具體化。例如,明確學校在安保門衛、飲食衛生、醫療衛生、體育活動、校車安全、安全教育等方面的具體要求,增強法律規范的可操作性,讓學校在實踐中可以有一個抓手。當然,這樣的立法不一定是法律,也可以是法規或規章來規定。

二是構建多元化的校園安全治理體系。校園安全建設是一項系統工程,校園安全涉及的領域非常廣泛,校園安全事故的發生往往也不是單一主體或單一原因造成的。所以,并不是學校或教育行政部門才有維護校園安全的義務,校園安全的建設需要多元主體的介入。立法應當明確不同主體維護校園安全的具體職責和義務。從預防學校安全事故的策略上,應促進實現學校事故預防的專業化和安全責任的分散化,即推動政府、社會及市場力量共建學校安全風險管理體系。包括健全學校安全管理機制,以政府購買服務的方式推行學校安全風險顧問制度,讓專業機構(保險公司、法律顧問、安保企業等)參與學校風險防范。另外,通過政府牽頭建立公共資源平臺,讓家長通過家庭教育強化學生的安全意識,讓社區利用居住便利滲透安全知識,讓社會組織利用其專業性承擔學生的心理疏導、行為矯正等專業事項。

三是建立學校安全事故處理機制與風險社會分擔機制。一旦學校發生學生傷害事故,學校應當立即啟動應急預案。具備應對突發事件的能力和規范流程,是避免傷害后果擴大、家校糾紛升級的重要手段。立法應科學合理地界定校園傷害事故中學校與學生(家長)雙方的責任,該是誰的責任就由誰來承擔;教育行政部門和學校要保證對事故責任客觀、公正地認識,既不規避責任,也不輕易妥協,用法律來制止“校鬧”行為。面對日益增加的學生傷害事故糾紛,可以借鑒醫療事故糾紛處理中醫調委的設計,建立學生傷害事故的第三方調解機制,由專門的調解委員會通過調解確定事故雙方的責任,提高事故處理的專業性和高效性。同時,大力推進學校保險機制的全覆蓋。立法可以在各地有效推行校方責任險的基礎上,從法規層面推動設立新的全面覆蓋學校各個環節的綜合險。允許和推動學校將學校安全的一些重要事項,如校園安保、食堂等環節,通過招標采購方式委托專業公司承擔,設立強制保險,適度分散風險。

(作者系天津市教育科學研究院教育法制研究所副研究員)

《中國教育報》2019年03月14日第2版 

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