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孩子玩手機是利是弊?家長介入方式是關鍵

《新媒體時代家庭媒介素養認知現狀調查報告》發布

發布時間:2019-05-07 作者:彭詩韻 來源:中國教育新聞網

5月5日上午,由北京師范大學和中國倫理學會網絡倫理專業委員會主辦的第三屆網絡倫理論壇在北京師范大學舉行,論壇發布了《新媒體時代家庭媒介素養認知現狀調查報告》。

為了解當下家庭媒介環境和青少年媒介素養家庭教育的現狀,北京師范大學文化創新與傳播研究院委托中國青少年研究中心,選取北京市八所初級中學,針對初一、初二和初三的學生及其家長進行配對的問卷調查。研究院院長、中國倫理學會副會長于丹從新媒體使用的代際差異、家庭媒介環境對青少年新媒體素養的影響以及家庭社會經濟地位對青少年新媒體素養的影響等方面,介紹了《報告》所獲得的新發現。

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北京師范大學文化創新與傳播研究院院長、中國倫理學會副會長于丹

父母使用手機時間比孩子更長 子女上網主要解決學業問題

調查顯示,7.2%的父母每天使用手機或平板電腦上網超過6小時,而每天上網超過6小時的子女比例僅占1.6%。超過半數家長每天上網超過1小時,比子女高出約40%。在使用時長上,數字化生存成為父母常態,而子女的媒介使用時間在可控范圍內。

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在使用頻率上,61.8%的父母經常使用手機或平板電腦上網,經常使用筆記本或臺式電腦上網的比例占34.7%,基本習慣以“豎”為主、以“橫”為輔的多屏生活。與父母相比,子女更擁抱“豎屏小時代”。58.5%的子女經常使用手機或平板電腦上網,比使用筆記本或臺式電腦上網的比例高出37%。

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在使用動機上,在父母使用新媒體的主要目的中,位列前三的是:搜索信息、讀取新聞以及社會交往,而在子女使用新媒體的主要目的中,學校要求作業布置、娛樂和在線學習排在前三位。可見,父母上網主要是獲取信息和社交需求,而子女上網的主要目的是解決學業問題的同時尋求娛樂。

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在信息選擇偏好上,父母信息消費較為均衡,社會新聞、時事政治、社教文化和綜藝娛樂都是父母偏好的瀏覽內容,而子女更偏愛娛樂消遣性內容,綜藝娛樂所占比例遠超出其他方面的內容。

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關于媒介功能認知,父母的風險感知(對新媒體消極功能的認知)能力比子女更強,而子女更側重于對新媒體積極功能的認知。

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父母的積極性介入程度越高 子女的新媒體素養越高

《報告》把家庭溝通類型分為多元型、保護型、放任型和一致型家庭,分別對應不同的溝通模式。把父母的介入方式分為積極性介入、限制性介入和共同使用三大類。研究發現,家庭媒介環境能夠對青少年新媒體素養產生影響。在鼓勵子女發表新構想、形成自己的立場,不必屈從權威的多元型家庭溝通模式和既注重父母與子女之間的和諧關系,又重視子女觀念的養成的一致型家庭溝通模式下,父母在子女新媒體使用上的介入程度更高。

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子女的信息反哺意愿較強,但主動性有待提高。信息反哺簡單說就是子女幫助父母使用新媒體。父母的反哺接受行為與父母的積極介入行為呈顯著的正相關,即父母越愿意接受子女的信息反哺,越愿意在子女使用新媒體的過程中提供積極的使用指導。

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父母在子女新媒體使用過程中,限制性介入方式最多,共同使用方式最少。父母的積極性介入程度越高、與子女的互動越密切,子女的新媒體素養越高;父母的限制性介入程度越高,子女的新媒體素養越低。

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陪伴不等于溝通,新媒體時代需更注重親子交流

關于家庭收入和居住地對父母新媒體功能認知的影響,《報告》提出,高收入家庭更強調對新媒體的風險(消極功能)認知,低收入家庭更平衡地看待新媒體“雙刃劍”功能;城鎮家庭相較于郊區家庭,更強調對新媒體的風險認知。

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父母與子女的互動時長對子女的新媒體使用時長及媒介信息處理能力有正向影響。于丹教授強調,家庭溝通環境中要注意“親子交流”和“親子陪伴”兩個概念的差異。親子交流涵蓋了跨時空的溝通與互動,雙方雖處于不同時空下,但交流可以在虛擬場域中進行;親子陪伴強調同一時空的互動,注重雙方的物理在場,但有可能產生無效陪伴。

此外,青少年的年齡與新媒體使用時長負相關,即高年齡段的青少年在新媒體使用時長上自控力更強。青少年的新媒體使用頻率和使用時長與新媒體信息處理能力負相關,也就是說,青少年的新媒體使用應控制在合理的時間范圍內,否則“過猶不及”。

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《報告》針對當下家庭媒介環境現狀和提升青少年媒介素養面臨的問題給出了有效的解決途徑。“首先要明確家庭新媒體素養教育的側重點,以信息理解能力、預防網絡詐騙和信息獲取能力的教育為重點;其次,要切實提升家長自身的新媒體素養,打通家校共育的新通道”;于丹表示,要引導孩子拓展新媒體信息渠道,防止過早陷入“信息窄化”;另外還要增加親子有效互動時間,共同營造親子共享新媒體的良好氛圍。

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嘉賓合影

論壇圍繞“賦權與賦能:新媒體時代青少年媒介素養反思”的主題進行了主旨演講。北京師范大學副校長郝芳華,北京社會科學聯合會黨組書記、北京市哲學社會科學規劃辦公室主任張淼,中國倫理學會常務副會長、長江學者特聘教授李建華出席論壇并致辭,北京師范大學文化創新與傳播研究院院長、中國倫理學會副會長于丹教授主持本次論壇。(中國教育新聞網記者 彭詩韻)

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