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?“讀書改變命運”缺乏說服力怎么辦

在輟學風險高的地區,學校需要差異化辦學的政策支持

發布時間:2019-05-06 作者:?尹可麗 來源:中國教育新聞網—中國民族教育雜志

近年來,輟學現象呈現出復雜化態勢。2007年全國范圍內推開“兩免一補”政策之前,家庭貧困“上不起學”是影響輟學的主要原因。而2017年全國教育事業發展統計公報數據顯示,我國九年義務教育鞏固率為93.8%,即全國初中畢業生的輟學率是6.2%,厭學或者學習困難已取代貧困成為輟學的主要原因。另外,農村、民族地區學校布局調整中出現的盲目撤點并校現象,以及寄宿制學校軟硬件建設投入不足等問題,使得少部分學生因上學難、上學遠、不適應住校等原因輟學。一些地區的傳統文化習俗,如早婚、宗教信仰等也會致使學生輟學。當下,隱性輟學以及在邊疆少數民族地區出現的“因富輟學”現象,又刷新了人們對這一問題的認識。

導致學生在學校失去樂趣、學習困難的原因非常復雜。我們可以提出一個假設,輟學者或輟學風險者所具有的心智結構,與其所在學校鼓勵和促進的心智結構發展不太匹配,致使這部分人自主脫離學校去尋求與其心智相匹配的環境以獲得發展。這里的心智結構是指由區域性的社會傳統文化環境所塑造的個體的思維方式、情緒及其人格等。在農耕文化、游牧文化、狩獵文化等占優的傳統社會中,人們的思維方式、語言與情緒的表達、人格的養成等與生產、生存和生活的方式有著緊密聯系。做中學、實踐中發展解決實際問題的能力;在各種勞作的收獲與損失的過程中,在人與人的交往互助或競爭中、在共享節日的快樂與食物中養成人格;在與周圍群體的行為、理想保持一致中獲得生命的意義。毋庸置疑,人類的心智結構有共同性,即使受到現代化與城鎮化的沖擊,一個民族在歷史上形成的那部分獨特的心智結構及其特征并不會徹底被改變。如果認識到這一點,也許我們可以回答,為什么在學校中覺得學習“苦”“難”的孩子,輟學后在家跟隨父母風吹日曬、長時間勞作, 卻能承受“苦”與“難”;為什么不適應校園學習與生活的孩子,輟學后外出打工,卻可以在一定程度上克服語言不通、生活不便、環境變化去主動學習新的知識技術、適應新環境。

著名的人類學家列維·斯特勞斯曾說,當我們將每一種習俗和信仰與自己的相比較時,不管它們在我們看來是如何令人反感或是不合情理,都是一種歷經數世紀才實現了內部平衡的某個系統的組成部分,我們無法從這個整體中去除一部分而不破壞其余部分。從這個角度看,當教師去勸返輟學學生時,使用“讀書改變命運”——如果這個命運更多的是指讀書升學考大學,這與輟學者及其家庭所預期的美好生活可能并不相符合。缺乏說服力的勸返,在以升學和提高考試成績為目標的學校教育中很可能將再次以失敗告終。

2019年教育部發布的工作要點指出,要完善綜合控輟保學機制,健全輟學高發區重點監測指導,實施精準控輟。如果從學生的心智結構出發,在輟學風險高的地區,學校需要差異化辦學的政策支持。比如,在辦學效益的考核評估方面增加學生的學習興趣、學習效能感、學校認同等指標。通過激發學校辦學活力,給教師接納并尊重受教育對象心智結構的可能性,始終以促進人的德智體美勞全面發展為目的開展教育教學,將成為控輟保學的一條重要路徑。(作者系云南師范大學教育科學與管理學院教授、博士生導師,主要研究方向:民族心理與教育)

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