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引導學生在深入討論和思考中得出結論

——關于改進小學思政課的一點體會

發布時間:2019-04-18 作者:王良 來源:《人民教育》雜志

“經師易求,人師難得”,既然已經肩負“培養擔當民族復興大任的時代新人”的使命,那就更應在新時代里敢于作出一份新成就。

3月18日,在習近平總書記主持召開的學校思想政治理論課教師座談會上,我有幸作為小學代表參會聆聽習近平總書記的重要講話并在會上發言。習近平總書記的講話既高屋建瓴又有現實指導意義,同時又生動新穎,直擊人心。習近平總書記的重要講話,對我們基礎教育德育課的教師而言,無疑是迎來了一個最美麗的春天。我愿將自己近20年來小學思政課暨德育課的教學經驗和心得與大家分享,希望能給奮戰在一線的教師同人帶去些許啟發。

樂為在昨天

我到小學教的第一節課就是德育課,最早的版本稱作《社會》,當時還只是一門不起眼的科任課,是地方教材中的一門,基本上算是靠邊站的邊緣課程,并沒有多少人重視它。但認真思考下來,這門課又是那么的重要。這對于思政教師來說,需要有教好這門課的決心和定力,還需要有永不言棄的努力。

剛開始的摸索是最難忘的。2001年,學校舉辦“家長公開課”,我選擇了《寶島臺灣》一課。這節課的核心內容是就臺灣與祖國大陸的地緣、血緣關系進行講解并介紹臺灣的物產風貌。這篇課文打破了學科之間的界限,涉及地理、歷史、政治、語文等多門學科的知識,集中體現了課程的綜合性。當時的教學條件非常簡陋,學校不能上網,圖書室也沒有可用的資料,教材內容又很簡單。怎樣能在課堂上讓學生更加形象、生動、直觀地感受到臺灣的地形地貌,又怎樣吸引學生的注意力,激發學習興趣,提高課堂教學效果?這對初上講臺的我來說,是一個很大的挑戰。于是,我騎自行車到西安南郊一所大學門外的網吧上網查資料。兩個星期里,對于臺灣的歷史淵源、風土人情、地形地貌……我做了翔實的查找、記錄,回到學校后又制作腳本,聯系電教老師制作關于臺灣海峽的FLASH動畫。為了增加課堂的參與度,我還動員班上繪畫能力好的孩子畫了一幅非常漂亮的臺灣地圖。同時,我動手制作了別致的物產圖標卡片,讓學生能夠在課堂上發現臺灣物產的分布……

那是我從教生涯中的第一節德育公開課,家長、學生、教師都收獲頗豐。

習近平總書記在全國教育大會上指出,要在堅定理想信念上下功夫,要讓學生立志肩負起民族復興的時代重任。我想,堅定理想信念的主體不僅是學生,教師更應該堅守自己的職業初衷,愿意不動搖、不折騰、不懈怠且抱有極大熱情去做一件事情。

敢為在今天

小學德育課尤其是涉及國情、歷史、文化教育內容的課程,教學的主要目標就是在落實“是什么”“為什么”“將怎樣”。為適應不同地區、不同人群、不同環境的教學需要,課程標準只給出了基本教學內容和教育資源。如果教師想更好地完成教學任務,就需要在教學設計上注意充分利用多媒體教學手段喚起學生對已有生活經歷的體驗,充分利用歌曲、圖片和教師富有感情的語言去渲染,讓孩子更加充滿情感地投入到這節課,情緒體驗效果也會被無限放大。動之以情、曉之以理地講解課程內容,更易于學生對課堂內容的理解消化。

比如,在講授六年級下冊第五單元《告別小學時代》一課時,我在開課導入設計中加入了自編的翻唱歌曲《時間都去哪了》:

走進校園想起他,教室里的老師呀,童年生活多難忘,揉進了您的白發。

記憶中的紅領巾,飄揚在我的心里,多年呵護總難忘,最愛的是你興華。

時間都去哪兒了?還沒好好感受快樂就散了,匆匆小學就結束,滿腦子都是同學哭了笑了。

時間都去哪兒了?還沒好好聽您教誨就走了,上學放學寫作業,轉眼就只剩下老師一個人了。

歌曲的使用,配合教師課前搜集記錄孩子成長過程的照片和視頻資料,迅速拉近了現實和過往的距離,促進了學生情感的迸發。情感的釋放有起伏、有層次,游戲的出現也對情感的過渡起到了很好的促進作用;課堂環節具有情境美,教師注入了自己的感情,讓學生從正面談過去,留下了對老師、對母校的感情。感應情境的創設,讓學生覺得今天不留遺憾,畢業后也戀戀不舍,培養了學生對時光的積極情感。同時整節課讓學生充分參與,從多個方面、多重內容上,讓學生有的說、能夠說、愿意說,體現出課堂的參與美以及跳躍美。

不論是低年級行為習慣的養成教育,中年級對社會生活的初步了解,還是高年級對國際視野的拓展,這一切都要求我們全面關注學生,要在情感目標的達成當中投入自己的極大分量。只有在課堂上積極引導學生真情實感地呈現,才會對學生的成長真正起到促進作用。

“經師易求,人師難得”,既然已經肩負“培養擔當民族復興大任的時代新人”的使命,那就更應在新時代里敢于作出一份新成就。

有為在明天

學校思想政治理論課教師座談會的召開,更加明確了思想政治理論課是落實立德樹人根本任務的關鍵課程。我們正在統籌推進大中小思政課一體化的建設,萬丈高樓平地起,地基作用是毋庸置疑的。如何在學生“拔節孕穗期”種下理想信念的種子,如何把小學德育課做得更好更能浸潤?我想,就是要在“八個相統一”的基礎上,不斷加大對學生認知規律和接受特點的研究,創新方式、拓展渠道引導學生參與教學討論,深入思考,水到渠成得出結論。

在教學實踐中,我把思政小課堂同社會大課堂結合起來。比如在講授統編教材二年級上冊《道德與法治》中《周末巧安排》一課時,我在課前安排學生與家長共同度過一個周末,然后再通過家長發來的孩子周末生活照片、視頻,讓孩子們互相了解其他同學如何過周末,家長、孩子在互動活動中感受到了親子快樂。很多家長表示,感謝學校提供這樣的課程,既讓孩子有機會親近大自然,也讓一家人享受到了久違的親情溫暖。布置課后延伸作業時,我又安排學生重新設計一份更科學的周末安排表。讓二年級學生自己動手做計劃、搞設計,從課堂對接到生活,還能讓學校與家庭生活聯系在一起,樂做、樂學。這對小學生來說,意義是非常大的。

“奮斗沒有終點,任何時候都是起點。”我想,接下來的德育課程中,我們應該不斷豐富充實教學方式、教育形式,不斷開發新的課程資源,更應該充分利用“互聯網+”作為新載體讓學生在學校小課堂中看到未來大世界。同時,大中小思政教師也應該坐在一起多進行一些具有銜接意義的互動交流,既滿足教師在本階段思政教育的發言權,又應該讓教師擁有對后續發展空間的知情權。如同蓋一座樓房,雖然砌墻的不管內裝修的,但地都砌不平整,怎么做下一步的裝修?

習近平總書記給我們繪就了未來思政課教育發展的藍圖,我們更應該勇立潮頭敢為先,不斷提升自己的理性思維,把基本原理變為生動道理,解開學生的思想困惑。我們還應該更多地關注孩子內心的訴求,不斷創新教學方式,與學生相互溫暖,相互點亮彼此心靈。(作者:王良,單位:陜西省西安興華小學)

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