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管培俊委員:編制實施民族地區職業教育總體規劃

發布時間:2019-03-08 來源:

中國教育報-中國教育新聞網北京3月8日訊(記者 李澈)“習近平總書記說過,推動民族工作需要依靠兩種力量,一種是物質力量,一種是精神力量。職業教育的發展兼具這兩種力量。”全國政協委員、國家民委原副部長級專職委員、中國高教學會副會長、國家督學管培俊委員說,《國家職業教育改革實施方案》進一步明確要加大對民族地區、貧困地區職業教育的政策、金融支持力度,加快發展民族地區職業教育十分緊迫,意義重大。

近年來,在中央和各地大力支持下,民族地區職業教育取得了顯著成就,但仍然面臨諸多困難和問題。 “全國10個高中階段教育職教招生比例不足40%的省區,有7個是少數民族和民族地區集中的區域。民族八省區職業學校‘雙師型’教師尤為不足,遠低于教育部規定最低標準。”管培俊分析說,民族地區職業教育的基本矛盾是產業不發達,“有效需求不足”,缺乏倒逼職業教育發展的動力,需要國家進一步整體規劃協調,采取特殊措施,持續加大支持力度。

管培俊建議,制定和實施民族地區職業教育總體規劃。把職教發展與促進民族地區發展的三個國家級規劃以及教育扶貧結合起來。加強省級統籌力度,針對民族地區行業產業發展需求,以提高自我發展能力為導向,出臺相關政策,設置職教專業。同時,培育具有民族地區特色的支柱產業,形成造血機制。他提出,應該從民族地區實際出發,集中力量重點支持舉辦一批高質量職業學校,逐步擴展,不必縣縣辦職校,避免資源分散和低水平辦學。

管培俊還建議,編制實施民族地區職業教育跨區域規劃,深度推進職業教育東西協作行動計劃,加強東西部職業教育的統籌和跨區域協作。發揮東部地區優質資源的輻射帶動作用,對口幫扶民族地區職業教育和產業發展。

“應該發揮民族地區自然資源和文化資源的獨特優勢,以推動民族文化傳承創新為著力點,促進產教融合。”管培俊說,可以考慮設立面向職業教育的民族文化傳承創新扶持資金,完善民族技藝學校傳承制度,支持民間藝人、技藝大師和非遺傳承人積極參與職業教育,促進職業院校和民族文化創意產業共同發展。

全國14個集中連片特困地區,多數在民族地區,這些地區的職業教育發展尤其需要幫扶。管培俊認為,應該設立民族地區鄉村振興職業教育專項經費,對集中連片特困民族地區,特別是“三區三州”的職業教育給予特殊支持。結合精準扶貧,培養造就一大批新型職業農民、技術技能人才,促進民族地區鄉村振興和農業現代化。

民族地區發展職業教育,急需一批雙語兼通、技術過硬的“雙師型”骨干教師,對此,管培俊建議采取“國家公費師范生”辦法選拔培養高素質雙師型師資。由中央財政以獎補方式予以支持,面向民族邊遠地區職業院校,定向培養“下得去、留得住、干得好”的公費師范生。同時,選拔企業專業技術人員、能工巧匠在職攻讀職業教育專業碩士和工學博士。為民族地區培養一批雙語兼通、技術過硬的“雙師型”骨干教師。

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