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狂風依舊,“背石頭上學”的牧民子女住校了

發布時間:2018-12-20 作者:新華社記者 關俏俏 丁磊 來源:新華社

深冬的新疆托里縣多拉特鄉,氣溫降到零下20攝氏度以下,而牧業定居學校的教室里,每片暖氣都熱得燙手。

地處我國西北邊境的托里縣冬季漫長寒冷,時常風雪彌漫。作為多拉特鄉牧業定居學校的第一任校長,在葉爾蘭·加列力的印象中,騎馬上學的孩子,到了教室也暖和不起來,煤火爐擋不住見縫就鉆的寒氣。

“哪里像現在這么暖和!”近20年過去了,他還忘不了學校初建的樣子,“那時學校沒圍墻,道路沒硬化,夏天一地土,春天滿腳泥。”

即使在新中國建立很長一段時間里,新疆哈薩克族、蒙古族牧民還過著逐水草而居的游牧生活。隨著政府推行牧民定居等一系列政策,偏遠牧區的牧民逐漸定居。

葉爾蘭·加列力告訴記者,1998年,學校是用村委會的幾間辦公室辦的教學點,4個年級的36名學生每天扛小板凳來上課。

“定居的牧民越來越多,學生也多起來。”葉爾蘭·加列力說,1999年建校后,條件十分簡陋,沒有一套完整的課桌椅,沒有像樣的宿舍,牧民每天騎馬接送孩子,遇到惡劣天氣,很容易出現危險。

位于塔城地區的“老風口”是世界著名的風雪災害區之一,年均大于8級大風天氣超過半年。“這里距‘老風口’只有4公里,常年刮著七八級大風。過去學生上學甚至要背著石頭以免被風吹走。”學校現任校長塞力克·胡爾班說。

為了讓牧民子弟得到良好教育,新疆開始在偏遠牧區建設和改善寄宿制學校。多拉特鄉牧業定居學校5年間從建教室、實驗室到建宿舍、食堂,條件越來越好,如今住校生超過170人,成為全縣人數最多的一所寄宿制學校。

有了宿舍,很多孩子不用再走遠路,天氣惡劣時,學校還會組織教師和村干部接送學生。塞力克·胡爾班說:“適齡學生也實現了應入盡入,學生數量增加到553名。”

不過,師資不足仍舊是困擾學校的難題之一。好在今年8月遼寧科技學院與托里縣簽訂協議,每學期選派大學畢業生前來支教,首批29名大學生已遠道而來。

“直到20世紀90年代,牧民還不太重視教育。”塞力克·胡爾班說,學校正在通過孩子們改變家長,“不但要上學,而且要上好學。”

12月上旬,一場暴風雪席卷而至,“老風口”經行車輛和旅客被困,暫停通行,而多拉特鄉牧業定居學校并未停課。

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