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傳承鄉土知識 促進民族團結

發布時間:2018-12-07 作者:巴戰龍 來源:中國教育新聞網-中國民族教育雜志

摘 要:延續地方社群共享的文化之根,建設各族人民共有的精神家園

進入21世紀以來,民族團結教育逐漸成為中國國民教育的一個熱點。實際上,如何通過教育促進社會團結,是數百年來無數文化精英為構建人類社會的現代性而試圖解決的核心問題之一。中國是一個多民族國家,民族團結是社會團結的核心內容之一,因此,無論從歷史規律還是從現實需求看,民族團結教育“熱起來”都在情理之中。

實施民族團結教育不僅是一項重要的社會政治任務,更是一項系統的文化教育工程。隨著民族團結教育在實踐中不斷推廣普及和推進深化,在基本解決了“有沒有”的問題之后,人們已經開始探索解決“有沒有用”的問題。從教育原理的角度看,有效的民族團結教育應是科學與藝術高度統一的產物,例如,在實施過程中,既要做到旗幟鮮明,又要做到潤物無聲;在效益評估中,既要立足當下,又要放眼未來;從教育實踐的角度看,有效的民族團結教育必須植根于厚重的中國文化,這就意味著,搞清楚民族團結的現實文化基礎是有效開展民族團結教育的前提。通過20余年的持續觀察,筆者發現,至少從民族地區基層社會的角度看,民族團結的現實文化基礎就是我們“日用而不知”的鄉土知識。

何謂鄉土知識,不同的人可依憑不同的參照框架和觀察視角作出不同的界定,但可大略定義為:生活在一定地域內的人們在長期的生產生活和互動交往中積累和總結出的一套與當地自然生態和文化生態相適應的知識體系,它具有扎根于生活、流布于地方、融通于智慧和多民族共享的典型特點。中國古已有言,“十里不同風,百里不同俗”,這說明鄉土知識有多樣性;“一方水土養一方人”,這說明鄉土知識又有同一性。中國國土面積將近三分之二是民族地區,而民族地區主要居住格局是“大雜居,小聚居”,因此,從總體上看,多種多樣的鄉土知識是各族人民和睦相處、和諧發展的黏合劑;從細部上看,大同小異的鄉土知識是培育地方認同、規范日常行為、賦予地方社群生活世界以文化意義的基礎養料。由是觀之,在民族地區,傳承鄉土知識就是延續地方社群共享的文化之根,就是建設各族人民共有的精神家園,就是維護民族團結這條各族人民的生命線。對于繁衍生息在特定鄉土知識體系中的各族人民來說,傳承特定的鄉土知識對于實現和鞏固各民族共同團結奮斗、共同繁榮發展的戰略部署和良好局面具有不可替代的作用。

2008年11月,教育部辦公廳和國家民委辦公廳聯合印發的《學校民族團結教育指導綱要(試行)》指出,“民族團結教育是學校、家庭和社會的共同責任”,因此,也可以說,在民族地區傳承鄉土知識亦是學校、家庭和社會的共同責任。毋庸諱言,當前民族地區還不同程度地存在著“傳承鄉土知識是學校的事情”的錯誤看法。筆者認為,雖然學校在把鄉土知識整理、精煉和提升后應用到落實“立德樹人”這一教育根本任務方面的確有特定優勢,但是學校絕不可能在傳承鄉土知識中扮演“宇宙無敵小戰士”的角色去“包打天下”。學校教育是一種有目的、有計劃、有組織地培養人的社會活動,也是一種在有限時空中傳承和創造文化的社會設置,并不是所有鄉土知識都能進入學校成為教育資源。學校教育篩選鄉土知識的三股準繩分別是區域歷史文化傳統、現實社會政治準則和學生身心發展特點,同時,學校教育中的鄉土知識傳承也應遵循“去粗取精”和“少即是多”的基本原則。

(作者巴戰龍,北京師范大學社會學院人類學與民俗學系副教授,主要從事教育人類學和族群人類學研究傳承鄉土知識促進民族團結)

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