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中國高考:走好自己的路

發布時間:2018-12-07 作者:張熙 來源:中國教育新聞網-中國民族教育雜志

摘 要:尊重并統籌好中央和地方政府、高校、社會、考生家長等多方面的利益訴求

隨著9月大學新生的入學,2018年高考徐徐落下帷幕,但關于高考的討論卻呈現愈演愈烈之勢。其中既有對招生命題、錄取機制、選拔標準等老問題的關注,更有對浙江、上海新高考改革試點情況的熱議。實際上,不僅我國對高考這樣一個高利害性考試有高關注度,美國教育界關于高考的討論也正如火如荼:逾百所美國頂尖私立高中組成MTC聯盟,推出了一個全新的學生評價系統——素養成績單(Mastery Transcript),目前已獲美國大學申請系統的支持。素養成績單不打分、不評級,只是持續追蹤、記錄評估學生的8項能力。MTC聯盟認為,素養成績單評價模式將全面改寫美國大學的錄取方式。由此可見,高考是世界普遍實行的人才選拔制度,中國高考如何立足本來、吸收外來、面向未來,進一步深化改革,真正實現中國特色的現代教育考試招生制度,形成分類考試、綜合評價、多元錄取的考試招生模式,是必須思考的問題。

首先,明確中國高考有自己的發展線索和改革邏輯。線索和邏輯不是單純的時間劃分,而是包含著價值理念的更新、制度的完善和技術的進步。因為高考制度不僅是一種人才選拔機制,更是一種社會分層機制,“選拔什么樣的人”和“怎樣選拔人”的價值取向既客觀反映著社會變遷的現實訴求,也形塑著社會結構的階層流動。

縱觀我國高考改革史,其價值取向在過去40 年中國社會結構變遷中主要經歷了三個階段:知識精英階段(1977—80年代末)——社會精英階段(90年代—2011 年)——卓越與公平階段(2012年至今)。在這個過程中,高考逐漸成為一項國本政策,強調讓真正高質量的教育惠及全民。真正公平的教育應該是有質量的教育,強調卓越與公平的統一性,對教育公平的理解由形式平等向實質平等轉變,也就強調基礎教育與高等教育一體化,通過高考整合中等教育與高等教育的鴻溝。40年中大大小小30多次考試改革,通過自主報考、擇優錄取,選拔了近兩億優秀大學生,為國家現代化建設提供了最重要的人才保證,為平民學子成長成才創造了平等發展機會。

其次,理性看待不同國家考試的認知方式,判斷其適切性。美國現行“高考”主要有SAT 和ACT,兩者均是由民間機構舉辦的。這兩個測試并不是為證明學生以往的學習成績和表現而設計的,它只是對學生學術潛能和學習能力的測量,旨在為高等教育提供錄取新生的參考依據。可見,美國高考弱化了社會屬性,心理性因素凸顯,幾乎可以等同為心理測量。

而我國高考源于科舉制,蘊含著古老的價值觀念:公平競爭、賢能治國。盡管科舉制早已被廢除,其核心價值觀依然為人們所認同,凸顯著社會屬性。因此,在過去的高考改革中,學習外來的技術層面尚可,涉及價值觀念的改革則肯定無疾而終。美國新近推出的素養成績單(MT)評價系統含8類能力61項指標,這種成績模式與近來風靡全球教育界的核心素養評價有著千絲萬縷的關聯,對我國的考試改革、綜合素質評價也會有所啟發。

再其次,應在社會治理現代化的框架內思考高考改革。中國的高考改革不是教育系統本身的問題,而是一個社會問題。高考制度不僅嵌入整個社會的宏觀結構之中,而且植根于民族認知方式和社會記憶。因此,我們要用現代治理思維做好高校招生錄取工作,尊重并統籌好中央和地方政府、高校、社會、考生家長等多方面的利益訴求:一方面,要整合高考改革背后的利益多元化;另一方面,要傾聽不同的聲音,讓弱勢群體的主張、焦慮、爭議有公平展示的機會,在協商基礎上達成改革共識。

中國高考,走好自己的路!(作者張熙,北京教育科學研究院基礎教育研究所所長,主要從事教育政策咨詢、學校管理和發展研究)

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