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尋找少數民族孩子學雙語的鑰匙

發布時間:2018-11-21 作者:本報記者 蔣夫爾 來源:中國教育報

在位于上海的研究室里忙碌,抑或偷閑坐在咖啡館喝一杯咖啡,本該是于小央的工作和生活日常。然而,如今的她,卻常常行走在萬里之外的新疆喀什、和田等地的鄉村校園,和少數民族的孩子們吃住在一起。

為了找到解決少數民族孩子雙語學習困難的鑰匙,2010年9月,于小央來到新疆,在喀什地區莎車縣一個偏僻的鄉村學校安了“家”。沒想到,她在邊疆一待就是8年。

從上海到新疆,她一頭扎進南疆農村校

“海歸”、上海“千人計劃”特聘專家、新疆“百人計劃”專家,這些都是貼在于小央身上的標簽,但于小央更愿意把自己看作一個致力于破解新疆雙語教育難題的研究者和解決方案的提供者。

2010年9月,于小央受邀參與上海市新一輪對口援疆,幫助新疆攻克少數民族地區師生雙語教學難關。從此,她開始了長達8年的援疆行。

來到新疆后,于小央住在喀什地區莎車縣塔尕爾其鄉,跟當地農民一起生活。那時,學校的老師聽不懂普通話,學生更是聽不懂,交流起來十分困難。于小央說:“不會說普通話,這里的孩子將來怎么能走得出去呢?”

她下定決心,一定要想辦法讓這里的孩子學好普通話。然而,對這些孩子來說,學好普通話并非易事。首先得有普通話說得好的老師來教,其次得有好的教學方法,但在塔尕爾其鄉這樣的邊遠農村,兩者都是稀缺的。

為了更深入了解少數民族孩子學習國家通用語言文字的困難,于小央帶著教師及研發團隊住進了當地學校空置的辦公室,上下兩層的架子床,成了他們的家。吃住在學校,每天兩塊五毛錢的伙食標準,有時候忙起來,大家只能吃白開水泡馕餅。她還住到當地老鄉家里,向他們學習語言,了解民族文化。

就這樣,在莎車縣塔尕爾其鄉和佰什坎特鎮,為找到讓少數民族孩子快樂學習國家通用語言文字的方法,于小央開啟了田野式調查研究和教具開發。

找問題尋規律,她開發出動漫教程

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通過和孩子們朝夕相處,于小央發現一些孩子不愛讀書,卻喜歡望著窗外發呆,但一到繪畫課,就很投入,沒有走神,體育課孩子也十分喜歡,在操場上奔跑,全身心投入。這背后是什么原因呢?

于小央認為,繪畫課能讓孩子充滿想象,所以會覺得很開心;體育課,孩子動起來,玩起來,激發了快樂,所以也很開心。然而,上語文課的時候,用傳統方式灌輸給孩子,一些孩子就不那么愿意學了。

于小央舉例說,記英語單詞,小孩子不愿意,但把單詞字母變成小卡通,比如,“S”變成一條蛇,“H”變成一把小椅子,“E”變成嘴巴,然后再講故事,畫出來,于小央發現孩子們都樂于接受,而且十分喜歡,興趣很高。

基于觀察和發現,以及少數民族孩子的認知和學習規律,于小央經過實踐探索開發出了“韜圖漢語動漫教程”。與傳統教學手段相比,該教程具有視覺化、娛樂化、游戲化等特點,實現了以動漫故事來深化少數民族孩子對口語和聽力的掌握,同時也強化了對字詞意義的感知。

之后,于小央又建立了資源庫,包括漢字動漫片1300集、繪本故事800本、維漢雙語詞圖庫5000詞、維漢雙語句子圖庫3000句、24部國學兒童劇、24套字圖巧克力模具等,從而實現了教學課件故事化、故事動漫化、練習游戲化的目標。

惠及南疆四地州30萬少數民族學生

于小央研發的“韜圖漢語動漫教程”已覆蓋南疆喀什、和田、克孜勒蘇柯爾克孜和阿克蘇等地州17個縣市、1050所學校、30多萬名學生,在南疆這塊土地上“遍地開花”,讓于小央倍感欣慰。

“韜圖動漫軟件特別好,學生也很喜歡。”喀什地區伽師縣夏普吐勒鎮中心小學教師依米仁沙說,“我一直帶學生在用,尤其是課文朗讀板塊,上課前學生先聽一遍標準朗讀,不但可以糾正學生的發音,我的普通話水平也提高了。”

為了讓教師更熟練使用這些教具,掌握教學方法,于小央和團隊先后培訓了兩萬多名少數民族教師。如今,該方案已經成為解決南疆長期以來國家通用語言文字教學困難的靶向性實效技術方法。

“韜圖漢語動漫教程”在和田市第五小學試點班應用,和非試點班對比結果顯示,二年級成績最大提高32.4%,四年級提高8%。喀什地區教育局對教程覆蓋學校的監測抽查結果顯示,葉城縣平均分數比2012年高出30分。由于“韜圖漢語動漫教程”的引入,喀什地區學生國家通用語言文字考試成績逐年遞增。

“如今,我最幸福的時刻就是坐在南疆少數民族學校的課堂里,聽孩子們用標準的普通話朗誦課文,而不是坐在上海街頭的咖啡廳里望著窗外,然后喝上一杯咖啡。”于小央這樣對記者說。(本報記者 蔣夫爾)

《中國教育報》2018年02月09日第1版 

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